Introduction: Hello friends today we came up with a topic of wheat cultivation income, yield, cost of cultivation in 1 acre farming. Wheat (T. aestivum) is the most important cereal crop in the worldbelongs to the family Poaceae.Now, India is second largest producer of wheat after china in area and production. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir are the major wheat growing states.Duration of wheat crop is 110-130 days.It can be used as feed, seed, and food. Protein in wheat is glutin which is necessary for dough making and in preparation of baking foods. It also prevents type 2 diabetes. Wheat contains high fiber. It also prevents childhood Asthma.
Wheat cultivation income, project report, yield, profits
Soil & Climatic conditions for Wheat cultivation:
Wheat can be grown in a variety of soils of India. Soils with clay loam or loamy texture, good structure and moderate water holding capacity are ideal for wheat cultivation. Proper care should be taken to avoid very porous and excessively drained soils. Soil should be neutral in reaction. Soils with good drainage facility are suitable for wheat cultivation under dry conditions. Heavy soils with poor structure and poor drainage facility are not suitable because, wheat is sensitive to water logging. It can be grown successfully on lighter soils.
Wheat contains wider adaptability. It can be grown in all temperature regions along with cold tacts of north India. It can tolerate severe cold and snow. In an area with cool, moist weather during the major portion of the growing period followed by warm, dry weather are suitable to produce good quality wheat. Temperature for optimum germination is 20-25 ̊ C.Temperature at the time of grain filling and development is very crucial for yield. Temperatures above 25 ̊ C during this period tend to decrease grain weight.
- PBW – 373
- PBW- 343
- HS-420 (Shivalik)
- HS- 375 (Himgiri)
- Ujiar (K-9006)
- Gangotri (K9162)
- Parbhani – 51
- Surbhi (HPW-89)
Cost of cultivation for 1-acre Wheat cultivation:
Cost of land preparation:
Generally, wheat requires a well pulverized but compact seed-bed for good and uniform germination. In irrigated areas wheat is usually sown after Kharif crops like Jowar, Maize, Bajra, Paddy, Moong(Green gram), etc.. After harvest of the previous crop, the field should be ploughed enough with disc or with help of mould board plough. Where tractor is available one deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing with disc or two- three times planking should be given. When bullock is the source of power, deep ploughing which is followed by two to three harrowings should be done. Planking should be done after ploughing. Pre-sowing irrigation before 7-10 days sowing is necessary to ensure good germination. Light cultivation and leveling of land are necessary before sowing. For land preparation it costs aroundRs.1,200.
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Cost of seed:
Only quality seeds suitable for the locality should be chosen for sowing. Make sure that there should not be seeds of other crop seeds in the seed material. Seed treatment is essential with Thiram or Mancozeb at 2.5 grams per kg seed.
Wheat Seed rate – 40 kilograms per acre
Normally, one kilogram seed material of wheat is Rs.40. So, totally it costs around Rs.1,200. Cost of chemical for seed treatment is Rs.200.
Wheat crop can be sown in 4 different ways
- Behind Local Plough
- Broadcast Method
In drilling method of sowing we need machinery. Whereas, when seed availability is less we will go with dibbling. In all methods of sowing averagely it may incur up to Rs.600 for sowing.
Nitrogen use efficiency will increase when fertilizer is placed by the drill. Recommended dose of N: P: K is 100:150:40 kg per acre. Nitrogen and potash should be applied in split doses.
1st dose -1/3rd of N&K application at sowing.
2 nddose- 2/3rd of N&K at first node stage.
3rddose – 55 days after sowing.Application of potash is necessary. Organic fertilizers like farmyard manure should be added during ploughing at 4-6 tonnes per acre. Cost of fertilization may extend up to Rs.2200 averagely.
Cost of intercultural operations:
Weed management is very important in wheat as they decrease the final yield. As they emerge with the emerging crop, if not controlled in the early stages of crop growth these may cause reduction in yield varying from 10-40 % depending upon the intensity and kind of weeds present in crop. Generally weeds are eradicated with the help of khurpi, hoe etc. However, now-a-days it has become difficult due to labor cost and unavailability of labor. Nowadays number of chemical weedicides are available that control the weeds in wheat. 2,4-D is the most common and effective herbicide to kill all the broad leaved weeds in wheat field.2,4-D is available in market under different trade names and each formulation has different amount of active ingredients in it. It should be sprayed in wheat fields 32-35 days after sowing. Weeding requires around Rs.800.
Cost of plant protection measures:
Rust, karnal bunt, blackpoint, loose smut, powdery mildew and head scab are the major diseases of wheat crop. Whereas, cereal cyst nematode, gall nematode, aphids, brown wheat mite, army worm, and termites are the major pests of wheat.Plant protection measures should be practiced immediately after or before appearance of pest and disease. For all these plant protection measures it costs up to Rs.1,500 including for chemicals and labor for spraying.
Cost of miscellaneous activities:
It includes cost of family labor, rent of land, interest over the capital, depreciation cost of farm machinery and electricity charges etc. Cost for all these may extend up to Rs.1,900 averagely.
Cost of harvesting and threshing:
High yielding dwarf varieties of wheat should be harvested when their leaves and stems turn yellow and become dry. To avoid loss in yield,the crop should be harvested before it is fully ripe. If harvest is not done in time, grain may be lost due to damage by rain, insects, birds, shattering and lodging. Harvesting at proper time ensures optimum grain quality and consumer acceptance. The right stage for harvesting is when moisture content in grains is 25-30%. Harvesting is normally done by hand with help of serrate edge sickles. After harvesting the crop, it is dried up to three to four days on the threshing floor and after that threshing is done by trampling bullocks or thresher attached to bullocks. Now-a-days power driven threshers are becoming very popular as they provide easy threshing in less time. Harvesting cost varies around Rs.700 if it requires 6 labor for cutting and for threshing,winnowing farmer needs to incur Rs.500.
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To market the produce farmer need to spend transportation charges of Rs.300 on an average.
Total cost of 1-acre Wheat farming:
Cost of seed material – Rs. 1,200+200
Cost of land preparation – Rs. 1,200
Cost of sowing – Rs. 600
Cost of weeding – Rs.800
Cost of Plant protection – Rs. 1500
Fertilizer cost – Rs. 2,200
Cost of miscellaneous activities – Rs. 1,900
Cost of harvesting and threshing – Rs. 700+ 500
Cost of transportation – Rs. 300
Cost of 1 acre Wheat farming – Rs. 11,100
Extra 10% of total cost – Rs.1,110
Total cost of 1 acre Wheat farming – Rs.12,210
Total cost incurred in 1-acre Wheat cultivation:
A wheat farmer has to incur Rs.12,210 to cultivate 1- acre wheat crop. There might be slight differences in total cost of cultivation from cost mentioned above depending upon various factors.
The total wheat cultivation income from 1-acre crop
Minimum support price for wheat for the year 2018-19 is Rs.1840. Averagely farmer can reap out around 15 quintals of wheat in one acre of land. Hence total gross returns will be Rs.27,600
Net profit from 1-acre Wheat farming:
It will be derived by subtracting the total cost of cultivation from total income. Here we can see the net income involved in 1 acre wheat cultivation.
Rs.27,600– Rs. 12,210= Rs. 15,390.
So,the farmer can get net profit of Rs.15,390 by cultivating wheat in one acre land. There might be little fluctuations in net income depending upon various factors.
Conclusion:By cultivating wheat in one acre land farmer can get net returns of Rs. 15,390 inshort duration of 3-4 months. That’s all folks about wheat cultivation income, and yield.