Importance of Tomato Fruit:
- Diet is beneficial for health.
- Used for making vegetables and processed foods. Ketchup, soup, sauce, chutney, etc. Foods can make.
- The alkaloid pigment lycopene in tomatoes reduces cell death in the body.
- Tomato crop thrives in clean, dry, low humidity, and tropical climates.
- The crop thrives at a temperature of 18 to 30 degrees Celsius.
- When the temperature rises above 38 degrees Celsius, the physical activity of the crop slows down and the cells get injured.
- Also, if the temperature drops below 10 degrees Celsius, it adversely affects the growth of the crop. Injury to the crop leads to a large drop in production.
- If there are high temperatures, low humidity, and dry winds, the tomato crop blooms. The quality of tomato fruit is excellent in hot and sunny weather, but the colour is also attractive.
Climate effect on tomato crop
- Less than 10 degrees Celsius stunts growth. Germination at 16 ते C to 29 से C is useful.
- 21 degrees to 24 degrees Celsius favourable for crop growth.
- 17 degrees to 21 degrees at night 25 and degrees to 30 degrees per day Great for flowers and fruit set.
- Adverse effects on fruit set at 32 C and Fruiting does not take place at 38 degrees Celsius. Averse to crop growth, the effect on lycopene.
- Pollination does not take place for 15 C. The fruit elongated and flattened. The fruit cups remain open.
This crop grows well in well-drained medium black soils.
In light soils the crop grows early, while in heavy soils the fruiting starts late; But the production goes a lot.
It should avoid black soil for planting rained tomatoes, while it should not grow summer tomato crop in light and shallow soils.
The ground level should be between 6 and 7.5.
For high rainfall areas, light to medium soils should select and sloped properly, so that rainwater does not accumulate in the vertical crop.
This crop does not grow well in alkaline soils and without drainage. This stunts the growth and flowering of the crop. If it drains the soil, excess water drained, and if the water is alkaline, then salinity also drained.
In the previous season, tomato crops like brinjal and chilli should not have grown. This leads to a higher incidence of pests and diseases. Also, this crop should not be grown in soils containing nematodes.
Preparation of seedlings:
Selection of suitable seedlings for the expected production, their proper replanting and efficient plant management is essential.
I should do the nursery on an area of 3 guns for the one-hectare area.
For hybrid varieties of tomato, 125 g of seed is sufficient for the one-hectare area.
Plough the land of the nursery twice vertically and horizontally. 3 m x 1 m. It should prepare x 15 cm Shape mattresses. Mix 5 kg of decomposed cow dung, 80 gm 19:19:19 or 100 gm 15:15:15 in the mattress well.
For seed treatment, Thyrum or Captain 3 gm or Trichoderma 2.5 gm per kg and then Azotobacter 2.5 gm per kg of seeds should rubbed to control the disease.
Then 10 cm by hand. Draw a line at a distance of 1 cm. Sow one seed at a distance. Light water from the jar. Then cover the mattress with a blanket.
Seeds usually germinate in 5 to 8 days. The cover should removed after seed germination.
I should do watering according to the size of the soil. When the seedlings grow, it should cover them with nylon netting, which reduces the incidence of insects.
Timely control of various diseases and pests in the nursery. For this 25 to 30 g of ferret should put in the mattress after 12 days. Also, add 2 to 3 gm of carbendazim per litre of water to the soil.
Seedlings should uprooted after 4 to 6 days, i.e. after 25 to 30 days and replanted. Before transplanting, water the seedlings the day before.
Nursery Tray Method:
The period of the nursery
Season B Sowing Period Replanting Period
Kharif May to June June to July
Rabbi September to October October to November
Summer January to February February to March
If you want to prepare seedlings by tray method, use pro-tray with 98 compartments. It takes at least 1.25 kg of coco peat to fill a tray. In a tray filled with coco peat, sow one seed in a compartment like this. In this method, it does not waste the seeds. Also, every plant grows strong. The tray method is convenient for transporting seedlings.
Land preparation for cultivation:
The land should be ploughed vertically and horizontally. Make proper adjustments. 20 tons per hectare of well-decomposed manure should be mixed in the soil. The grass sticks, turf stalks, etc. in the ground should be well picked and burnt.
90 to 120 cm in excellent quality heavy soil. At a distance of 60 to 75 cm in light soils. The steam should tie at a distance according to the slope of the land.
At the time of infection, the distance between the two plants should be 45 to 60 cm. To keep. Planting should be 90 x 30 cm. Should have done it at a distance. 3.60 x 3.00 m Make steam of size.
Planting of seedlings:
After the tomato seedlings are ready, water the seedlings a week before planting.
Re-water the waffles on the day of planting. I should plant plants in wet conditions while there is water in the waffles.
Dead, injured, rooted, crooked, and flattened, and it should not take diseased plants for planting.
Before planting, I should treat seedlings with 10 ml of carbosulfan. Carbendazim 10 g per 10 liters of water should be immersed in this solution.
When planting seedlings, do not apply pressure on the seedling trunk. Such seedlings then sprout as the delicate trunk immediately crushed.
It should give fermentation on the second or third day after planting.
Within 10 days after planting, the seedlings that have died should be replaced with new seedlings.
Integrated food management:
Apply a balanced amount of fertilizer by examining the soil.
A) Organic fertilizers: 20 tons of manure and 200 kg of neem powder per hectare.
B) Chemical fertilizers: 300 kg N, 150 kg P, and 150 kg K per hectare for hybrid varieties in the medium type of soil.
Also, for improved straight varieties apply 200 kg N, 100 kg P, and 100 kg K per hectare.
Besides, for hybrid and improved and straight varieties, 25 kg ferrous sulfate, 25 kg manganese sulfate, 5 kg borax, and 25 kg magnesium sulfate should have given per hectare. Fertilizer doses should change as per soil test.
C) Organic fertilizers:
2 kg Azotobacter per acre, 2 kg phosphorus dissolving bacteria, and 2 kg potash dissolving bacteria should mix in 1 ton of manure.
When applying fertilizers, give half nitrogen, full phosphorus, and potash at the time of planting. It should apply the remaining half of the nitrogen in equal instalments after 15, 25, 40, and 55 days to the root zone at a short distance from the trunk of the plant. Water immediately after the application of fertilizers. Besides, it should give micronutrients 5 to 7 days after planting.
It should take land management and climate into consideration while managing water.
Light soils should water more, and light soils should watered less.
Water immediately after planting. Then add fermentation water.
Excessive watering during the early stages of the crop results in higher leaf and branch growth. Therefore, until flowering, apply water for about 65 days from planting.
When irrigating from a drip irrigation system, the daily water requirement of the crop should determined and it should measure the same amount of water.
Water stress during flowering can lead to flower and fruit fall and fruit set problems.
If water given continuously and excessively, the roots do not get air supply. The leaves turn yellow and yield decreases.
Watering should have done according to the availability of rainwater during the monsoon. Water at intervals of 8 to 10 days in winter and at intervals of 6 to 8 days in summer.
Supporting tomato plants:
After 30 to 35 days of planting, when the growth of the plant is strong, the branches and twigs sprout vigorously, for which bamboo, twine, and wire should support them.
Plant 6 to 9 feet high wooden bamboo in the ground on the side of the sari. Pull the wire on both the poles at a height of 1 meter from the ground and bound it and support it with bamboo in the middle.
The height of the tree is 30 cm. When done, tie a string to the trunk of the tree and tie it to the wire. Then, as new branches sprout from the tree, each branch should tie to the wire with twine.
Soil filling: Soil the plants within 30 to 45 days after planting. To do this, break the half sari in front of the tree and apply soil on the side of the tree so that the trunk of the tree gets support and helps in splitting the roots. Helps to maintain proper soil air content. When adding soil, it should take care not to bury the tree too much in the soil.
The flowering of tomato crop is mainly because of high temperature, high humidity, dim light, fast and dry winds, water stress, disease, and insect infestation and changes in growth hormones in the crop. Proper management and control of all the above factors are essential to prevent the flowering of tomatoes. Also, according to expert advice, spray growth hormone 4 CPA in 50 to 100 mg per litre of water only on the flowers.
After planting tomatoes, it required weed to keep the crop weed-free.
In case of application of herbicides in tomato crop, spray pendimethalin at 2 litres per hectare 8 to 10 days before planting.
Spray Metribuzin 16 to 20 days after planting as per herbicide recommendation.
Cut fully ripe and red fruits for processing. However, fruits for the market should cut when they are half red and half green.
Depending on the variety, the yield of red tomato is 35 to 50 tons per acre.
Fruits should harvest early in the morning or in the evening when the temperature is low.
Fruit picking usually starts 65 to 70 days after planting. This followed by daily or partial harvesting.
If the fruit is to send for a long market, the yellow dotted fruit should pick. Such fruits grow well in transport. Pink reddish fruits should send to a medium-scale market, while full red fruits should send to the local market or processing industry.
Pesticides should not spray 3 to 4 days before harvesting; Otherwise, pesticide stains on fruits and toxicity remain in fruits.
After harvesting, the fruits should shade and sorted according to their size. Nasal, cracked, diseased fruits should remove.
Great fruits should packed in wooden boxes or plastic crates and sent for sale.
Tomatoes are mainly susceptible to measles, mumps, and viral diseases.
Outbreaks appear to exacerbate during the fruiting season.
It is a fungal disease, and the plants suddenly turn to sand. After uprooting, the roots look rotten. With an infestation in the nursery, the seedlings appear dead.
Control: Draw a line with a hole near the roots of the seedlings and apply Copper Oxychloride 25 gm per 10 litres. After planting, apply copper oxychloride 30 gm per 10 litres of solution at 50 to 100 ml per plant. As per the instructions.
There are two types, early and late. Yellow spots appear on the leaves, followed by round black-brown spots. Then the leaves dry out.
Control: Mancozeb 25 gm per 10 litres or tebuconazole 10 ml. Spray per 10 litres. Further spraying should do with expert advice.
Tomato mainly infected with groundnut bud necrosis virus and leaf curl virus. They spread by flowers and whiteflies. Controlling these pests can reduce the incidence of diseases. For control of insects, Profenofos or Dimethoate 15 to 20 ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. If I find the disease in the field, the plants should uprooted and destroyed.
This larva eats leaves. The green or ripe fruit then enters the pond.
Control: Quinolphos 20 ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. Heliothis Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HNPV) Viral Insecticide 200 ml. Spray every 200 litres of water in the evening.
These larvae feed on the green parts of the leaves. As a result, it hampers the process of leaf food production.: it should remove such leaves while planting seedlings.
Apply 2 to 3 sprays of 4% neem extract.
If the larval level increases, abamectin 4 ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. Further spraying should be done on the advice of an expert.