Significance of Tomato Fruit:
- Eating regimen is helpful for well being.
- Used for making greens and processed meals. Ketchup, soup, sauce, chutney, and many others. Meals could make.
- The alkaloid pigment lycopene in tomatoes reduces cell demise within the physique.
- Tomato crop thrives in clear, dry, low humidity, and tropical climates.
- The crop thrives at a temperature of 18 to 30 levels Celsius.
- When the temperature rises above 38 levels Celsius, the bodily exercise of the crop slows down and the cells get injured.
- Additionally, if the temperature drops under 10 levels Celsius, it adversely impacts the expansion of the crop. Harm to the crop results in a big drop in manufacturing.
- If there are excessive temperatures, low humidity, and dry winds, the tomato crop blooms. The standard of tomato fruit is great in sizzling and sunny climate, however the color can be enticing.
Local weather impact on tomato crop
- Lower than 10 levels Celsius stunts progress. Germination at 16 ते C to 29 से C is helpful.
- 21 levels to 24 levels Celsius beneficial for crop progress.
- 17 levels to 21 levels at evening 25 and levels to 30 levels per day Nice for flowers and fruit set.
- Hostile results on fruit set at 32 C and Fruiting doesn’t happen at 38 levels Celsius. Averse to crop progress, the impact on lycopene.
- Pollination doesn’t happen for 15 C. The fruit elongated and flattened. The fruit cups stay open.
This crop grows effectively in well-drained medium black soils.
In gentle soils the crop grows early, whereas in heavy soils the fruiting begins late; However the manufacturing goes lots.
It ought to keep away from black soil for planting rained tomatoes, whereas it shouldn’t develop summer season tomato crop in gentle and shallow soils.
The bottom stage must be between 6 and seven.5.
For top rainfall areas, gentle to medium soils ought to choose and sloped correctly, in order that rainwater doesn’t accumulate within the vertical crop.
This crop doesn’t develop effectively in alkaline soils and with out drainage. This stunts the expansion and flowering of the crop. If it drains the soil, extra water drained, and if the water is alkaline, then salinity additionally drained.
Within the earlier season, tomato crops like brinjal and chilli shouldn’t have grown. This results in a better incidence of pests and ailments. Additionally, this crop shouldn’t be grown in soils containing nematodes.
Preparation of seedlings:
Number of appropriate seedlings for the anticipated manufacturing, their correct replanting and environment friendly plant administration is crucial.
I ought to do the nursery on an space of 3 weapons for the one-hectare space.
For hybrid forms of tomato, 125 g of seed is adequate for the one-hectare space.
Plough the land of the nursery twice vertically and horizontally. 3 m x 1 m. It ought to put together x 15 cm Form mattresses. Combine 5 kg of decomposed cow dung, 80 gm 19:19:19 or 100 gm 15:15:15 within the mattress effectively.
For seed remedy, Thyrum or Captain 3 gm or Trichoderma 2.5 gm per kg after which Azotobacter 2.5 gm per kg of seeds ought to rubbed to regulate the illness.
Then 10 cm by hand. Draw a line at a distance of 1 cm. Sow one seed at a distance. Mild water from the jar. Then cowl the mattress with a blanket.
Seeds normally germinate in 5 to eight days. The quilt ought to eliminated after seed germination.
I ought to do watering based on the dimensions of the soil. When the seedlings develop, it ought to cowl them with nylon netting, which reduces the incidence of bugs.
Well timed management of varied ailments and pests within the nursery. For this 25 to 30 g of ferret ought to put within the mattress after 12 days. Additionally, add 2 to three gm of carbendazim per litre of water to the soil.
Seedlings ought to uprooted after 4 to six days, i.e. after 25 to 30 days and replanted. Earlier than transplanting, water the seedlings the day earlier than.
Nursery Tray Technique:
The interval of the nursery
Season B Sowing Interval Replanting Interval
Kharif Could to June June to July
Rabbi September to October October to November
Summer time January to February February to March
If you wish to put together seedlings by tray technique, use pro-tray with 98 compartments. It takes at the very least 1.25 kg of coco peat to fill a tray. In a tray crammed with coco peat, sow one seed in a compartment like this. On this technique, it doesn’t waste the seeds. Additionally, each plant grows sturdy. The tray technique is handy for transporting seedlings.
Land preparation for cultivation:
The land must be ploughed vertically and horizontally. Make correct changes. 20 tons per hectare of well-decomposed manure must be blended within the soil. The grass sticks, turf stalks, and many others. within the floor must be effectively picked and burnt.
90 to 120 cm in glorious high quality heavy soil. At a distance of 60 to 75 cm in gentle soils. The steam ought to tie at a distance based on the slope of the land.
On the time of an infection, the gap between the 2 crops must be 45 to 60 cm. To maintain. Planting must be 90 x 30 cm. Ought to have achieved it at a distance. 3.60 x 3.00 m Make steam of measurement.
Planting of seedlings:
After the tomato seedlings are prepared, water the seedlings every week earlier than planting.
Re-water the waffles on the day of planting. I ought to plant crops in moist situations whereas there may be water within the waffles.
Lifeless, injured, rooted, crooked, and flattened, and it shouldn’t take diseased crops for planting.
Earlier than planting, I ought to deal with seedlings with 10 ml of carbosulfan. Carbendazim 10 g per 10 liters of water must be immersed on this answer.
When planting seedlings, don’t apply strain on the seedling trunk. Such seedlings then sprout as the fragile trunk instantly crushed.
It ought to give fermentation on the second or third day after planting.
Inside 10 days after planting, the seedlings which have died must be changed with new seedlings.
Built-in meals administration:
Apply a balanced quantity of fertilizer by inspecting the soil.
A) Natural fertilizers: 20 tons of manure and 200 kg of neem powder per hectare.
B) Chemical fertilizers: 300 kg N, 150 kg P, and 150 kg Ok per hectare for hybrid varieties within the medium kind of soil.
Additionally, for improved straight varieties apply 200 kg N, 100 kg P, and 100 kg Ok per hectare.
Moreover, for hybrid and improved and straight varieties, 25 kg ferrous sulfate, 25 kg manganese sulfate, 5 kg borax, and 25 kg magnesium sulfate ought to have given per hectare. Fertilizer doses ought to change as per soil take a look at.
2 kg Azotobacter per acre, 2 kg phosphorus dissolving micro organism, and a couple of kg potash dissolving micro organism ought to combine in 1 ton of manure.
When making use of fertilizers, give half nitrogen, full phosphorus, and potash on the time of planting. It ought to apply the remaining half of the nitrogen in equal instalments after 15, 25, 40, and 55 days to the basis zone at a brief distance from the trunk of the plant. Water instantly after the applying of fertilizers. Moreover, it ought to give micronutrients 5 to 7 days after planting.
It ought to take land administration and local weather into consideration whereas managing water.
Mild soils ought to water extra, and lightweight soils ought to watered much less.
Water instantly after planting. Then add fermentation water.
Extreme watering throughout the early levels of the crop leads to increased leaf and department progress. Subsequently, till flowering, apply water for about 65 days from planting.
When irrigating from a drip irrigation system, the every day water requirement of the crop ought to decided and it ought to measure the identical quantity of water.
Water stress throughout flowering can result in flower and fruit fall and fruit set issues.
If water given repeatedly and excessively, the roots don’t get air provide. The leaves flip yellow and yield decreases.
Watering ought to have achieved based on the provision of rainwater throughout the monsoon. Water at intervals of 8 to 10 days in winter and at intervals of 6 to eight days in summer season.
Supporting tomato crops:
After 30 to 35 days of planting, when the expansion of the plant is robust, the branches and twigs sprout vigorously, for which bamboo, twine, and wire ought to assist them.
Plant 6 to 9 ft excessive wood bamboo within the floor on the aspect of the sari. Pull the wire on each the poles at a peak of 1 meter from the bottom and sure it and assist it with bamboo within the center.
The peak of the tree is 30 cm. When achieved, tie a string to the trunk of the tree and tie it to the wire. Then, as new branches sprout from the tree, every department ought to tie to the wire with twine.
Soil filling: Soil the crops inside 30 to 45 days after planting. To do that, break the half sari in entrance of the tree and apply soil on the aspect of the tree in order that the trunk of the tree will get assist and helps in splitting the roots. Helps to take care of correct soil air content material. When including soil, it ought to take care to not bury the tree an excessive amount of within the soil.
The flowering of tomato crop is principally due to excessive temperature, excessive humidity, dim gentle, quick and dry winds, water stress, illness, and bug infestation and adjustments in progress hormones within the crop. Correct administration and management of all of the above elements are important to forestall the flowering of tomatoes. Additionally, based on knowledgeable recommendation, spray progress hormone 4 CPA in 50 to 100 mg per litre of water solely on the flowers.
After planting tomatoes, it required weed to maintain the crop weed-free.
In case of utility of herbicides in tomato crop, spray pendimethalin at 2 litres per hectare 8 to 10 days earlier than planting.
Spray Metribuzin 16 to twenty days after planting as per herbicide suggestion.
Minimize totally ripe and crimson fruits for processing. Nonetheless, fruits for the market ought to reduce when they’re half crimson and half inexperienced.
Relying on the range, the yield of crimson tomato is 35 to 50 tons per acre.
Fruits ought to harvest early within the morning or within the night when the temperature is low.
Fruit choosing normally begins 65 to 70 days after planting. This adopted by every day or partial harvesting.
If the fruit is to ship for an extended market, the yellow dotted fruit ought to choose. Such fruits develop effectively in transport. Pink reddish fruits ought to ship to a medium-scale market, whereas full crimson fruits ought to ship to the native market or processing business.
Pesticides shouldn’t spray 3 to 4 days earlier than harvesting; In any other case, pesticide stains on fruits and toxicity stay in fruits.
After harvesting, the fruits ought to shade and sorted based on their measurement. Nasal, cracked, diseased fruits ought to take away.
Nice fruits ought to packed in wood bins or plastic crates and despatched on the market.
Tomatoes are primarily vulnerable to measles, mumps, and viral ailments.
Outbreaks seem to exacerbate throughout the fruiting season.
It’s a fungal illness, and the crops abruptly flip to sand. After uprooting, the roots look rotten. With an infestation within the nursery, the seedlings seem lifeless.
Management: Draw a line with a gap close to the roots of the seedlings and apply Copper Oxychloride 25 gm per 10 litres. After planting, apply copper oxychloride 30 gm per 10 litres of answer at 50 to 100 ml per plant. As per the directions.
There are two sorts, early and late. Yellow spots seem on the leaves, adopted by spherical black-brown spots. Then the leaves dry out.
Management: Mancozeb 25 gm per 10 litres or tebuconazole 10 ml. Spray per 10 litres. Additional spraying ought to do with knowledgeable recommendation.
Tomato primarily contaminated with groundnut bud necrosis virus and leaf curl virus. They unfold by flowers and whiteflies. Controlling these pests can cut back the incidence of ailments. For management of bugs, Profenofos or Dimethoate 15 to twenty ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. If I discover the illness within the subject, the crops ought to uprooted and destroyed.
This larva eats leaves. The inexperienced or ripe fruit then enters the pond.
Management: Quinolphos 20 ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. Heliothis Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HNPV) Viral Insecticide 200 ml. Spray each 200 litres of water within the night.
These larvae feed on the inexperienced elements of the leaves. Because of this, it hampers the method of leaf meals manufacturing.: it ought to take away such leaves whereas planting seedlings.
Apply 2 to three sprays of 4% neem extract.
If the larval stage will increase, abamectin 4 ml. Spray per 10 litres of water. Additional spraying must be achieved on the recommendation of an knowledgeable.