The electrical automobile increase may convey lithium mines again to North Carolina


Within the Piedmont area of North Carolina, about 50 miles east of the Blue Ridge mountains, a skinny, 25 mile-long belt of ore stretches north from the southern state line. The strip, referred to as the Carolina Tin-Spodumene Belt, comprises the nation’s largest laborious rock deposit of lithium.  

Again within the Fifties, lithium gained significance as a element of nuclear bombs and prescribed drugs, and the realm round Kings Mountain, close to Charlotte, noticed a significant increase in mining. For about 30 years, the area equipped virtually all of the lithium on this planet. Then within the Eighties, manufacturing moved to lower-cost operations abroad. At present, lower than 1 p.c of worldwide lithium is mined in america, all from one mine in Nevada; the overwhelming majority comes from Chile, Australia, and China.

However as nations search to chop emissions and transition to wash vitality sources, demand for the metallic is growing, and the U.S. is seeking to ramp up manufacturing inside its borders. Final summer time, President Joe Biden signed an govt order calling for electrical autos, which rely upon lithium-based batteries, to make up 50 p.c of all new automobile gross sales by 2030. The Inflation Discount Act, just lately signed into legislation, goals to incentivize a home battery provide chain, offering tax breaks for mines and credit for electrical vehicles and grid storage functions when a share of the battery is produced or recycled within the U.S.

A lithium-ion battery for the electrical Volkswagon ID.3 is saved in a manufacturing unit warehouse.
Jan Woitas / image alliance by way of Getty Photographs

Now, mining corporations are as soon as once more eyeing North Carolina as they search to capitalize on the booming marketplace for electrical autos and renewable vitality storage. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that three identified spodumene deposits within the area – round Kings Mountain, Bessemer Metropolis, and Cherryville – comprise a mixed 426,600 metric tons of lithium. That quantity, which incorporates reserves that may very well be economically extracted at current in addition to different estimated sources, could be sufficient to produce batteries for over 50 million electrical autos. 

Piedmont Lithium Inc., a 2016 Australian startup, acquired hundreds of acres in Gaston County and signed a deal to produce lithium to Tesla in 2020. It in the end relocated its headquarters to North Carolina final yr. Albemarle, a specialty chemical manufacturing firm and one of many largest lithium producers on this planet, has invested about $100 million in a attainable mission in neighboring Cleveland County.

an aerial view of buildings in the midst of a brown wilderness

“During the last 18 months we’ve seen a 700-percent improve in lithium pricing, which is a genuinely insane worth improve,” mentioned Daisy Jennings-Grey, a senior worth analyst from Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, which researches battery and electrical automobile provide chains.

However lithium mines world wide and throughout the nation face controversy for his or her environmental and social impacts. And simply as curiosity on this North Carolina area, with its deep reserves, lengthy mining historical past, and rising presence of battery and electrical automobile crops has risen, so too has native opposition. The Piedmont area is rising on the latest battleground within the debate over whether or not clear expertise is really clear for everybody, with residents and policymakers in several communities divided.


Piedmont Lithium’s land sits within the northwest nook of Gaston County, close to Cherryville, on the outskirts of Charlotte. Surrounded by massive swaths of forest and dealing farmlands, the group is widespread amongst transplants from New York and California, “however it’s additionally multi-generational farms, homegrown individuals who have lived right here all their lives,” mentioned Chad Brown, a member of the Gaston County Board of Commissioners.

a blue lake surrounded by trees
A former lithium mine in Kings Mountain that closed within the Eighties is now being thought-about by Albemarle as the location of a brand new, expanded operation. Courtesy of Albemarle

The corporate began shopping for land in Gaston County in 2016, in the end buying or gaining mineral rights to over 3,000 acres. In 2018, it informed buyers that it anticipated to acquire the required permits the next yr to construct an $988 million extractive hub and processing facility. The imaginative and prescient included 4 500-foot deep mines and a chemical plant that would convert the mineral spodumene into 22,700 metric tons of lithium hydroxide yearly. 

By September 2020, Piedmont Lithium had signed a deal to produce Tesla a 3rd of the mine’s annual output, sufficient to energy at the very least 350,000 Teslas a yr, for as much as 10 years. It hadn’t even utilized for state permits and a county zoning variance but. It took one other yr earlier than the group heard the detailed proposal for the mine, at Piedmont Lithium’s first public assembly earlier than the Gaston County Commissioners final summer time. 

“It was the worst rollout of an financial growth plan ever,” Brown mentioned. “They went to each stakeholder earlier than they got here to us.”

Lights shine from the Albemarle lithium processing plant in Kings Mountain Courtesy of Albemarle.

An outpouring of public pushback has successfully stalled the mission. Residents say their questions on loud blasting, elevated truck site visitors, vibrations, mud, and air high quality haven’t been adequately addressed by the mine. The county board of commissioners put a short lived moratorium on mining to replace their native codes final yr; in addition they employed an impartial hydrologist. Digging a big open pit within the floor lowers the water desk, plus the spodumene refining course of is each water- and carbon-intensive. It produces chemical waste at a number of intervals with potential for spills and floor and groundwater contamination; residents fear their wells and rivers may very well be poisoned or run dry.

“They mentioned the operation shall be fully secure,” mentioned Lisa Stroup, who lives two miles south of the proposed Piedmont Lithium website and labored at a lithium hydroxide plant in close by Bessemer Metropolis. “Having labored with lithium, I can inform you there may be nothing secure about it,” she famous of the extremely caustic and erosive metallic.

Stroup lives one mile north from an previous Hallman-Beam lithium mine that was ultimately bought by the corporate Martin Marietta and mined for gravel. “Again once they had been actively mining quarry rock, this place was a mud bowl,” mentioned Stroup. Traditionally and today, Gaston County comprises arsenic ranges above EPA requirements in a number of public ingesting wells, a phenomenon related to hardrock mining. 

“Anytime somebody will get sick round right here everybody says, ‘I’m fairly positive it’s one thing within the air or within the water from the mine,” she mentioned.

Within the ongoing allowing course of, the state has expressed considerations about Piedmont Lithium’s chemical disposal plans; the corporate just lately requested a 180-day extension to finish its Leaching Environmental Evaluation Framework, a system for evaluating the discharge of probably dangerous substances for quite a lot of strong supplies, together with mine waste. If it does purchase state permits, it nonetheless wants to use for zoning modifications from the county board of commissioners, a number of members of which have already spoken out in opposition to the mission.

Lithium deliveries from Piedmont to Tesla had been supposed to start out as early as this summer time, however the firm is now focusing on 2026. In the meantime, Piedmont Lithium is being sued by its shareholders for failing to reveal details about permits and native opposition that induced inventory costs to fall. At this level, the corporate has solely executed exploratory drilling on the website and just lately invested in mines in Ghana and Quebec to supply lithium whereas the North Carolina mission is delayed.

“I don’t really feel like we’ve received but in any respect,” mentioned Stroup. She and different native residents are nonetheless ready for the end result of the state mining evaluation. “We’re not in opposition to different gasoline sources or modes of transportation, however we really feel there should be higher solutions.”


In adjoining Cleveland County, lithium mining is being obtained extra favorably. Scott Niesler, the mayor of Kings Mountain, helps Albemarle’s plan to reopen and develop a shuttered lithium mine proper exterior of city.

“Mining has been a part of the material of the group because the Twenties,” mentioned Scott. “And Albemarle is a powerful, established firm that will be a superb company citizen.” 

One of many greatest lithium gamers in the marketplace, Albemarle produces a few third of the world’s lithium, largely from mines in Australia and South America. It additionally runs the nation’s solely totally operational lithium mine in Silver Peak, Nevada, the place the metallic is mined from brine fairly than spodumene. 

Headquartered in Charlotte, Albemarle already has a presence in Kings Mountain, the place it runs a analysis facility and operates one of many space’s two crops that produce lithium hydroxide, a compound valued for its skill to carry a cost for lengthy intervals of time, making it one of the best for high-energy-density batteries. Roughly half the fabric for the plant comes from the corporate’s Nevada mine, and the remaining comes from Chile.

a man in a green vest and hard hat walks past a turqouise lake
A lithium mine supervisor inspects an evaporation pond of lithium-rich brine within the Atacama Desert on August 24, 2022 in Salar de Atacama, Chile. Albemarle Company, based mostly in Charlotte, N.C. is increasing mining operations at their Salar Plant to fulfill the rising international demand for lithium carbonate, a fundamental element within the manufacture of batteries, more and more for electrical autos.
John Moore / Getty Photographs)

In 2015, Albemarle purchased a water-filled pit from Rockwood Lithium. The mine had been operational from the late Thirties to the Eighties and Albemarle is seeking to reopen the location, increasing and deepening the pit. “There’s already a gap there,” mentioned Niesler, declaring that the realm is already zoned for industrial use.

Albemarle has been doing environmental influence research and buying extra acreage by offers with landowners, however “now we have not made a closing funding determination so far,” mentioned Alexander Thompson, Vice President of Lithium Sources for the corporate. “Our pathway to manufacturing is topic to group engagement.”

The corporate had its first formal group assembly in March and has promised to host quarterly city halls. It’s additionally planning to open an workplace on the town the place folks can cease by to ask questions.

Nonetheless, engagement can solely go to this point when a lot stays unknown concerning the environmental impacts of lithium mining within the space; Albemarle readily admits the research will take years, and a mine wouldn’t open till 2027. On the first city corridor, which overflowed from the town council chamber into the hallway, questions arose about mud, site visitors, water, and dangerous waste.

a hand holds a beaker of white powder in front of a sign that says albemarle
Albemarle Company spokesman Marcelo Valdebenito holds a bottle of processed lithium carbonate at a lithium mine on August 24, 2022 in Salar de Atacama, Chile.
John Moore / Getty Photographs

Whereas lithium extraction strategies have improved over time, and Albemarle has talked about wastewater recycling and land reclamation, “there may be actually no benign means of getting minerals out of the earth,” mentioned Timothy Johnson, an professional on vitality, pure sources, and the setting at Duke College. 

The mission scope isn’t but outlined, however Thompson mentioned that 70-100 households could be instantly affected by operations on the land the corporate already owns, they usually have already been contacted. 

Henry Hartleb, who moved to the realm from Illinois in 2012 and is now retired, lives 75 ft off the previous mine website. He just lately agreed to a suggestion of $290,000 for his one-acre property and mill home. However he worries that the provides are too low for his neighbors to purchase one thing comparable within the space.

“I don’t see it having a lot financial profit to the group,” mentioned Hartleb. Nonetheless, he thinks the mission will undergo. “Individuals listed below are older, 75 p.c are from the realm. It’s poorer than Gaston County too, and it’s a mining group. There’s already an organization regularly mining for gravel at a quarry proper subsequent to the mine.”

Clay Bruggeman, whose dwelling abuts properties bought by the mine, has but to decide to promote. “We’ve got a pleasant life right here, but when the town and the mine need this to occur it’s in all probability going to,” he mentioned. “I’ve to consider what’s finest for me and my household.” 

Along with the mine, Albemarle has introduced plans to create a “mega-flex” lithium conversion facility within the U.S. Southeast that will course of as much as 100,000 tons of lithium per yr. In line with Thompson, the Kings Mountain mine would offer half the uncooked materials for the brand new plant. “This has the potential to be a multi-decade operation,” he mentioned.


North Carolina’s huge mineral reserves are simply one of many causes the state is being eyed as the following lithium sizzling spot. The area, a longtime hub for automobile manufacturing, is now poised to change into a hub for EVs. Each Toyota and VinFast, a Vietnamese automobile maker, have introduced plans for battery crops in North Carolina. Ford and Volkswagen are establishing EV meeting crops in Tennessee and battery producers, together with Korean SK Innovation in Georgia, are establishing store throughout the Southeast. 

For the time being, whereas the U.S. is the second greatest lithium person on this planet, home battery crops import virtually all supplies from overseas. That’s all a part of why Albemarle and Piedmont Lithium need to supply lithium domestically within the space.

However the area additionally exemplifies an uncomfortable fact within the vitality transition. Research emphasize the necessity for a fast transition to carbon-free transportation if the U.S. hopes to have any likelihood of assembly clear vitality targets. However clear vitality is barely clear when you think about the variable of atmospheric carbon; mining nonetheless has native polluting impacts. 

Usually, mines get developed in locations the place residents have much less political clout and sources to push again. Within the U.S., 79 p.c of lithium sits inside 35 miles of Indigenous lands. Lithium America’s proposed lithium clay mine at Thacker Move, sacred land to the Northern Paiute and Western Shoshone, confronted vehement opposition from tribes, ranchers, and environmental teams earlier than receiving its permits in February. Round California’s Salton Sea, the place trials to commercially develop lithium from geothermal brines are ongoing, a number of tribes have raised considerations about impacts to their ancestral lands and exclusion from the decision-making course of.

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Daranda Hinkey, a member of the Fort McDermitt Paiute Shoshone tribe, stands in a field of sage brush
Native opposition to Nevada lithium mine grows

In different components of the world, native pushback to lithium mining has stalled tasks in Serbia and Australia. In Chile, the place lithium mining from brines has sucked Indigenous lands dry, a left-wing authorities is trying to manage the trade. Environmental justice teams and others involved concerning the impacts of mining have usually referred to as for extra transformative transportation planning that reduces the necessity for vehicles altogether (This could even be vital to fulfill emission discount targets). They’ve additionally referred to as for creating recycling capability as a substitute supply of metals.

“It takes seven to 10 years to construct a brand new mine, and even corporations which have executed it for years face new issues once they attempt to ramp up lithium manufacturing,” mentioned Jennings-Grey of Benchmark Mineral Intelligence. Because the U.S. scales up lithium mining, the present lack of any cathode capability within the nation means the metallic is shipped abroad, a barrier for a completely home EV provide chain. “[North Carolina] is an fascinating one to keep watch over and will definitely produce some vital home volumes,” mentioned Jennings-Grey. “However it doesn’t matter what, it’s going to be a gradual climb.”