Music Strategies for food production vary between the major climate zones. There are some themes that are constant for all climates. One of those is the use of locally adapted varieties of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and domestic animals. This places Permaculture solidly in opposition to factory farming and the use of genetically changed plants and animals, where only one variety of plant or animal is mass-produced and agriculture homogenized over wide regions. Remember that diversity is resilience, and the Permaculture approach is to value genetic diversity and support the living evolution of food crops that suited for the unique conditions of each area. In dry lands, food production centres around the development of oases, where water and nutrients concentrated from expansive areas into fertile and well-watered strips. In most historic examples of dry land agriculture, it collects runoff from vast areas into valley bottoms and ravines to produce well-watered pockets where farming could undertake. On the urban scale, it concentrates water from roof surfaces, roads and other hard surfaces to create protected pockets where abundant gardens can flourish. Grazing is workable in dry lands over the wider landscape, but the land needs long rests in between, so proper rotation and stocking rates are essential so that grazing does not completely denude the vegetation and trigger cycles of soil erosion that can be very difficult, take a long time to repair.
There are also many native food plants that can foraged from the desert. In places like the Sonoran Desert in the Southwest of the US, there are abundant wild food plants to harvest that helped to feed indigenous people throughout their history. Here’s a picture of my urban high desert garden from Prescott, Arizona, USA. You can see sunken garden beds that heavily mulched for water conservation. It fed only by collecting rainwater, which put into unglazed clay pots sunken into the ground. The water slowly seeped into the surrounding soil with zero evaporation. The temperate zones differ from the dry lands in that we find more intensive food production possible across the wide landscape. The presence of rain and snow means that there’s a lot of biological activity going, and soils are easy to build. The temperate zone is where it’s appropriate to do large-scale field cropping and livestock production with less risk of degrading the land. In temperate climate sit’s more about managing the abundance and choosing what you will grow, while keeping aggressive weed species from dominating. Because temperate climates are farther from the equator, sunlight can be a limiting factor. Proper orientation towards the sun and creating suntraps will create microclimates that are lighter and warmer and more protected from the wind. The idealized farming landscapes in temperate zones are mosaics of field, forest, hedgerow and orchard, rotating fields between grazing, food crops, and cover crops, collecting water in ponds and managing productive forests [as you can see here]. Heating is from wood and wood products. Fruit and nut trees grow abundantly, as wells fungi.