Fish Farming in Tamil Nadu, How to Start, Tips, Ideas

Fish Farming Tamil Nadu6

Introduction to fish farming in Tamil Nadu: Fish farming is a type of aquaculture system wherein fish are raised in enclosures to be bought as meals. It is among the fastest-growing areas for animal feed manufacturing. Fish farming performs an necessary function within the socio-economic improvement of the nation. It is acknowledged as a robust supply of earnings and employment because it stimulates the event of many ancillary industries, and is a supply of low cost and nutritious meals along with being a overseas trade earner.

Most importantly, it’s the supply of livelihood for a big part of the nation’s economically backward inhabitants. Opportunities within the fish farming enterprise require specialised information, experience, and cautious each day supervision. Fish is a wholesome, protein-rich, and scrumptious meals that’s low in ldl cholesterol and energy. The fish weight loss plan is in excessive demand because of its nutritional vitamins and proteins.

Guide on fish farming in Tamil Nadu, targets, land choice, fish farm sorts, pond design, appropriate fish species, value, schemes and revenue

Fish Farming in Tamil Nadu
Image Source: Pixabay

The fisheries sector was run with the next targets

  • Increase fish manufacturing by encouraging fishermen to take advantage of the underutilized marine fishery sources to cut back fishing strain in coastal areas.  
  • Increase water useful resource manufacturing in inshore areas via conservation measures, improve inventory, set up synthetic rocks alongside the coast, and many others. 
  • To promote information and understanding of fisheries sources, their conservation, administration, and improvement, and particularly sustainable eco-friendly coastal aquaculture. 
  • Improving and strengthening infrastructure amenities for fish touchdown and advertising. 
  • Increase home fish manufacturing in reservoirs, panchayat tanks, and ponds. 
  • Provide customers with wholesome and secure fish and fish merchandise. 

Is the fish farming enterprise worthwhile? 

Fish farming is a profitable enterprise for a lot of causes. Here are a few of them;

  • Fish and fish merchandise are in excessive demand all around the world. 
  • The market demand and worth of fish and fish merchandise are all the time excessive. 
  • Commercial Fish Farming Enterprise gives a large-scale provide of fish primarily based on demand. Fishing within the wild doesn’t all the time meet the market demand. Under these circumstances, business fish farming can fill this hole. 
  • Fish may be simply picked up in tanks except they’re able to be bought or marketed, and they don’t want to gather giant portions of untamed fish. As a end result, business fish farming contributes to the conservation of pure habitats
  • When in comparison with wild fish, some species of farmed fish are wholesome and scrumptious. On business fish farms, fish are sometimes fed quite a lot of nutritious and protein-rich meals or pellets. As a end result, farmed fish are more healthy than wild fish.
  • Different varieties of fast-growing fish can be found. Cultivating these fast-growing fish species ensures a fast return in your funding. 
  • People with different professions or jobs also can begin this enterprise. 
  • Bank loans and funding help are additionally accessible for fish farming initiatives. 

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Fish farming in Tamil Nadu
Image Source: Pixabay

Aquaculture, which entails the breeding and rearing of fish, refers to fish farming. These fish are bought as meals and within the current period, fish farming is rising because the fastest-growing sector so far as animal feed manufacturing is anxious. At current, fish farming just isn’t restricted to fishermen and coastal individuals, however many merchants and industrialists from all walks of life are leaping into the nation’s fisheries sector.

New applied sciences resembling aquaponics and tank fish farming have made it simpler for us to develop fish in a small area. The nation’s largest banks are financing fishing actions resembling marine, inland, and brackish water fishing.

Select an applicable farmland/space for fish farming

Choosing the correct land or space is essential for beginning a business fish farming enterprise. Not all areas are appropriate for a worthwhile enterprise. And some areas have ample pure sources, that are very efficient for the fish farming enterprise. 

Types of your fish farm 

There are a number of particular varieties of fish farms within the intensive and intensive fish farming system. Start a fish farming enterprise by selecting any sort of system. You can choose cage system, tank system, or pond system. In the case of fish farming in tanks, make one or a number of tanks and retailer the fish there. 

Pond design and development for fish farming

After selecting your farm space, create an acceptable pond. Make a very good design and construct the pond in line with your required design earlier than constructing. When designing a pond, be sure to have all the required amenities to take care of a worthwhile fish farming enterprise. Although the design of the pond relies on the species of fish you plan to boost and your location.

You can seek the advice of your nearest Fisheries Institute to study extra about pond design for particular species of fish. Always attempt to keep a very good ambiance within the pond. A superb setting helps the fish to outlive and thrive and this immediately entails higher manufacturing and most revenue.

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Pond design and construction for fish farming
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Suitable fish species for fish farming in Tamil Nadu

The choice of appropriate fish species is crucial to maximise income within the fish farming enterprise. Select the breeds which can be in excessive demand and worth within the native market. The most necessary fish species utilized in fish farming worldwide are Carp, Salmon, Tilapia, and Catfish. There are many species of all these fish and they’re appropriate for farming in all types of agricultural weather conditions. Choose fish species for farming in line with your native amenities, demand, and worth. 

Marine finfish tradition – Cobia, Sea Bass, and Pompano are the favourite kinds of candidates for finfish farming. These fish are very helpful seafood fish with mushy and scrumptious meat which has good market potential. Enclosed bays, estuaries, and shallow coastal waters are appropriate for farming. Hatchery know-how has been accomplished for the manufacturing of sea bass seeds and there’s no constraint in seed manufacturing. Sea bass may be raised in backwater cages. 

Edible fishes from Tamil Nadu 

Fresh water fishes

1. Indian main carps
  • Catla Catla – Catla has a deep physique with a distinguished head, giant upturned mouth, lips with out fringe, devoid of barbels, and 14-16 branched rays are the figuring out options. It feeds on zooplankton on the floor of the pond utilizing giant flower rakers. However, younger (15-20 mm) feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton. It grows to a most measurement of 1.8 meters (45 kg). It is a fast-growing breed within the Indian giant corps. The first-year development is 35-45 cm and about 1.5 – 2.0 kg. It matures within the second 12 months.
  • Cirrhina mrigala (Mrigal) – Small head of a linear physique with a blunt snout, subterminal mouth with skinny non-fringed lips, dorsal fin with 12-13 branched beams, and vibrant silver physique with golden colour to figuring out options. This is a backside feeder on decaying natural and vegetable particles. However, its younger eat on the zooplankton. The most measurement obtained is 0.9 m. In the primary 12 months, it grows to about 30 cm (700 g). 
2. Catfish (kind: Siluriformes-‘Keluthi ‘) 

Catfish are air-breathing or stay fish as a result of they’ll breathe immediately into the ambiance. They can stay lengthy with out water and due to this fact may be carried over lengthy distances alive and effectively. The physique is with out scales and has two pairs of lengthy barbells in every of the higher and decrease jaws. The mouth may be very lengthy with enamel and jaw. Most catfish are predators and man-eaters, feeding all of the animals within the pond, together with barbecue. 

3. Murrels or snake heads

These fishes are air-breathing and are in good demand. Elongated and cylindrical physique, depressed head, giant and lengthy mouth are its distinguishing options. 

  • Channa marulius (large snakehead) – Dorsal and anal fins of this species have lengthy and with out spines. It reaches a most measurement of 1.2 meters. It is appropriate for tradition in ponds with tilapia, the younger of that are a supply of meals for this breed. 
  • Striatus (Striped snake-head or Common murrel) – It has stripes on its physique. Gets a most measurement of 90 cm. 
4. Tilapia 

Oreochromis mossambicus – An unique fish that was launched to India in 1952 from the east coast of Africa. Maturity additionally happens in individuals as much as two months of age. It grows about eight instances a 12 months. 

Brackish water fishes in Tamil Nadu

In Tamil Nadu, brackish water fishes spend most of their lives within the backwaters of river mouths (estuaries), mangrove swamps, and coastal lagoons. Grey mullets (‘Madavai’), Chanos Chanos (Milkfish), Pearl spots (‘Kari’meen), Seabass (‘Koduva’), the Seabreams.

Marine Fishes in Tamil Nadu

The coastal seafood of Tamil Nadu contains cartilaginous and bony fish.

  • Elasmobranchii
  • Cartilagenous fishes – Sharks and skates.
  • Bony Fishes – Pomfrets, Indian Mackeral, Seer fish, Carangids (‘Para’ meen), Ribbon fishes, Catfishes, Flat fishes, Sardines.

Learn the abilities for beginning a fish farming

  • You want greater than luck to reach the fish farming enterprise. You can get coaching from government-run farms that prepare coaching. 
  • Make certain you’ve gotten a everlasting supply of high quality water. 
  • Examine the water wherein you’re beginning to domesticate fish, each chemically and bacteriologically. 
  • Learn in regards to the newest technical strategies of danger evaluation in addition to danger administration.
  • Select dependable suppliers for fish eggs, fingerlings, and fish feed are necessary in fish farming. 
  • Evaluate the authorized compliance and permission required to start out a fish farming enterprise in your space. 

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Skills for starting a fish farming
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Cost of beginning a fish farming enterprise

There are two main varieties of funding on this farming enterprise. One is fastened capital value and the opposite sort is working value. Capital prices embody land and constructing, pond development, autos for transportation, plumbing preparations, a number of tanks, oxygen meters, and many others. 

In a fish farming enterprise, working prices embody some parts like the acquisition of eggs or fingers, fish feed, electrical energy, gas, labor, chemical substances, medicines, insurance coverage, transportation, and different upkeep prices. 

Carefully put together an in depth calculation of the price of your proposed fish farming plan earlier than getting into the enterprise. The calculation will change relying on the chosen fish species. And additionally, in line with your required manufacturing and whole land space. 

What gear is required for fish farming? 

In fish farming, one other necessary facet is the acquisition of sure varieties of gear. The under are among the fundamental gear required in fish farming;

  • Pumps 
  • Aeration units
  • Net / Seine Reels 
  • Handling and grading gear 
  • Graders
  • Fish counters

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Fish Net for Fish Farming in Tamil Nadu
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Feeding administration for fish farming

For beginning a business fish farming enterprise, feeding is an important half. Always attempt to present your fish with high-quality and nutritious meals. High-quality meals not solely ensures most manufacturing but additionally helps in holding the fish wholesome. So, complement your fish with pure meals. There are varied varieties of business fish feed accessible available in the market for particular species of fish.

You should buy these business feeds from the market or make your personal. Learn extra about making supplementary fish feed, if you wish to make it your self. Be certain to incorporate all types of important vitamins, resembling nutritional vitamins, minerals, and salts. Depending on the species of fish, feed your fish a number of instances a day. 

Marine and inland fish farming schemes in Tamil Nadu

The under schemes are among the necessary state and central authorities schemes applied by the Fisheries Department for the advantage of the individuals of Tamil Nadu. Then, these schemes can be utilized by any individual in Tamil Nadu to start out a enterprise. These schemes thrive in all walks of life. 

Build freshwater / brackish water fish hatcheries 

Unit value – With a minimal capability of about 5 million postlarvae per 12 months topic to Rs. 50 lakh per unit. 

Terms and circumstances 

  1. Beneficiaries will present documentary proof from all burdens and monetary sources, full technical particulars together with vital approvals/permits, and many others. No funds can be offered for the land. 
  2. The Fisher Cooperative / Collective can be eligible for Central Financial Assistance and they need to ahead their proposals with applicable suggestions via the involved State / Centrally Administered Government. 
  3. Suggestions from Central and State Government Organizations / Federations / Corporations / Agencies and many others. could also be submitted on to NFDB. 
  4. Beneficiaries have the required technical expertise for hatchery development, operation, and administration.
  5. Post-construction operations, hatcheries can be managed and maintained by the customers at their very own expense in a passable method. 
  6. The NFDB may also arrange and handle hatcheries immediately with the correct business location. 

How to use – The consumer can apply for the scheme on the related AD places of work. 

Build Recycling Aquaculture Systems (RAS) 

Unit Cost – Low-Cost RAS – Rs. 15.00 Lakh Per Unit 

Cost – Medium Size RAS – Original, with Rs. 50.00 lakh per unit for a minimum of 8 tanks. The medium-sized RAS unit comprises about Rs. 31 lakh capital value and Rs. 19 lakhs as operational value. Central help can be offered as a one-time operational value. 

Low-cost RAS system: 5 x 5 x 4 meters cement tank (100 m3 every), the minimal manufacturing capability of two tons of fish per tank 

Medium RAS system means a minimum of 8 tanks and the minimal measurement of every tank is about 7.65 x 7.65 x 1.5 m (90 m3 every). Minimum manufacturing capability of 5 tons of fish per tank. 

Terms and circumstances 

  • Beneficiaries will submit a self-made detailed undertaking report (DPR) with full particulars. 
  • No funds can be offered for the land. 
  • The detailed undertaking report will embody particulars of anticipated direct and oblique employment technology for the native inhabitants, improve in fish manufacturing, particular timelines for implementation of the undertaking, and many others. 
  • Project proposals of Cooperative / Collective / Businessmen can be submitted to NFDB. These beneficiaries can be offered central help within the type of a back-end subsidy. 
  • For Central / State Government Organizations / Federations / Corporations / Agencies and many others., the quantity of monetary help can be selected a case-by-case foundation in session with the involved. 
  • Construction operations, administration, and upkeep after RAS can be carried out by the customers at their very own expense in a passable method. 
  • NFDB may also set up RAS administration with an applicable enterprise method. 
  • The constructed infrastructure ought to have the required necessities for RAS together with a water therapy unit. 

How to use – The consumer can apply for the scheme on the related AD places of work.

Fisheries improvement schemes (particularly seed manufacturing) in Tamil Nadu

The inland fisheries schemes have contributed to the growing development price of home fish manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. Details of the schemes are given under. 

Inland Fisheries Development Program in Tamil Nadu 

The following schemes had been applied throughout the Eleventh Five Year Plan interval (Director Fisheries, Government of Tamil Nadu) in reference to the event of inland fisheries in Tamil Nadu.

  • Assistance to inland fish farmers via Fish Farmers Development Agencies (Central and State Schemes) 
  • National Agriculture Development Program (NADP) Scheme 
  • National Fisheries Development Board Scheme (NFDB) 
  • Tamil Nadu Irrigation Agricultural Modernization and Reservoir Rehabilitation and Management Scheme (IAMWARM) 

Various Inland Agencies implementing fisheries improvement packages

  • Department of Fisheries, Tamil Nadu 
  • TANUVAS (the Tamil Nadu University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences) 

Harvesting and advertising suggestions for fish farming

Harvesting turns into appropriate for fish after a sure time. Although this harvesting time relies on the species of fish. When giant numbers of fish attain the advertising age, begin harvesting. Try harvesting within the morning or afternoon when the temperature is low. Finally, ship the fish to market as quickly as doable after harvest. 

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Harvesting and marketing tips for fish farming
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Marketing of fish and fish merchandise

Marketing is the best a part of the fish farming enterprise. There are many markets accessible the place you’ll be able to promote your fish merchandise and there’s a big demand for all sorts of fish available in the market. 

Establishment of Fish Processing Parks in Tamil Nadu – The authorities has introduced to arrange fish processing parks in 13 coastal cities of Tamil Nadu to develop ample infrastructure amenities to advertise exports. 

Modernization of fish markets – Fish markets are being arrange at 19 places with the assistance of NFDB and the state authorities and trendy hygiene amenities are being offered to the customers to offer wholesome and good high quality fish to the fishermen. This will assist them to get a good worth for his or her fish. 

Coastal aquaculture system in Tamil Nadu

Coastal aquaculture has been acknowledged as an necessary supply of employment and meals safety to satisfy the meals safety and dietary wants of our rising inhabitants. In the context of accelerating meals safety within the trendy world, fish and fish merchandise are thought of among the many most secure meals produced by animals. The second-longest coastal area within the nation is Tamil Nadu with ample pure sources for coastal aquaculture. 

Marine fisheries improvement in Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu has a coastal size of 1,076 km (13% of the nation’s shoreline), 1.9 million sq km of EEZ (9.4% of India’s EEZ), and a continental shelf of roughly 41,412 sq km and is among the main states in India. The marine fish manufacturing of the state is 4.97 lakh tonnes. In coastal waters, 38,779 conventional crafts and 5893 machine boats reap the benefits of the fishing potential. 

Tamil Nadu has an space of ​​3.83 lakh hectares. Efficient inland water sources embody reservoirs, giant irrigation tanks, small irrigation tanks, quick seasonal tanks, ponds, streams, backwaters, and derelict water our bodies. With the rise in demand for fish, there’s a must considerably improve the entire fish manufacturing of the state from all accessible fishing sources.

However, aquaculture is rising as a big exercise in rural areas to extend fish manufacturing and earnings. Integration of fish tradition with agriculture has proved to be an possibility to extend the productiveness of the unit via the aquaculture system. The authorities is decided to triple home fish manufacturing within the coming years. 

Tamil Nadu schemes for fish ponds

The Government of Tamil Nadu is offering a 100% subsidy for the development of farm ponds. The scheme was launched three years in the past and was well-received by farmers within the drought-hit Shiva Ganga district. The ponds helped improve groundwater within the space and divert accessible rainwater for irrigation.

The authorities gives between Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 1 lakh relying on sure ideas. This provides three advantages to the farmers. In addition to acquiring water for cultivation, it additionally helps in elevating fish and elevating good livestock grass on the banks of ponds. An official of the Agriculture Engineering Department mentioned that 1680 ponds have already been constructed in Shiv Ganga.

Apply for a fishing license in Tamil Nadu 


  • Applicants could apply for a fishing license or allow earlier than their fishing gear resembling fishing rod, web, reels, fishing line, hooks, vessel, and many others. must be registered within the State Directorate of Fisheries. 
  • Registration of fishing gear is a one-time exercise. 
  • Applicants can not apply for a fishing license or allow with out first registering their fishing gear. 

Apply in individual

  • Applicants making use of for a fishing license or allow ought to apply for a fishing license on the state Department of Fisheries Directorate. 
  • The applicant has to fill the applying kind as per the directions and submit it to the involved authorities. 
  • The applicant has to offer all of the required paperwork to the authorities for verification and in addition pay the required software charge. 
  • After verifying the paperwork, the authorities will subject a fishing license.

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