Explained | How bad is the global refugee disaster?

In 2021, most refugees got here from Syria, whereas Turkey hosted the most variety of refugees.

In 2021, most refugees got here from Syria, whereas Turkey hosted the most variety of refugees.

The story to this point: The United Nations has designated June 20 as World Refugee Day to honour forcibly displaced folks throughout the world and have fun their power and braveness.

For the 2022 version of World Refugee Day, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) has determined to deal with the proper of refugees to hunt security.

Who is a refugee?

The UNHCR defines a refugee as an individual who flees their dwelling nation because of violence, battle or persecution. Race, faith, nationality, political opinion or membership in a specific social group are the most typical causes of persecution because of which individuals flee their homelands.

Refugee disaster in the final decade
| Photo Credit: Data: UNHCR

A carefully associated class is that of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) — those that are on the run because of armed battle, generalised violence or human rights violations, however inside their very own nation.

According to the UNHCR, 69 per cent of refugees displaced throughout borders are from simply 5 conflict-ridden nations: Syria, Venezuela, Afghanistan, South Sudan, and Myanmar.

To spotlight the refugees’ proper to hunt security, the UNHCR is specializing in three key areas:

Whoever they’re, folks compelled to flee must be handled with dignity. Anyone can search safety, no matter who they’re or what they imagine. It is non-negotiable: in search of security is a human proper.

Wherever they arrive from, folks compelled to flee must be welcomed. Refugees come from throughout the globe. To get out of hurt’s method, they could take a aircraft, a ship, or journey on foot. What stays common is the proper to hunt security.

Whenever individuals are compelled to flee, they’ve a proper to be protected. Whatever the menace – battle, violence, persecution – everybody deserves safety. Everyone has a proper to be secure.

Source: https://www.unhcr.org/world-refugee-day.html

1951 Refugee Convention

The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was adopted in 1951 and types the crux of worldwide refugee safety at present. The conference is grounded in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 which states that everybody has the proper to hunt and to take pleasure in asylum from persecution in different nations . The conference additionally highlights non-refoulement – not returning refugees or asylum seekers to a rustic the place their freedom or lives are threatened.

The 1951 conference initially solely utilized to individuals who fled because of occasions that occurred earlier than January 1, 1951, and inside Europe. An modification in the type of a 1967 Protocol eliminated these limitations and made the Refugee Convention relevant globally.

Highlights of the 2021 UNHCR report

In line with the development seen in the final decade, the variety of refugees recorded in 2021 was at an all-time excessive. The UNHCR 2021 report on global tendencies places the variety of refugees at 27.1 million, with 83 per cent of these hosted in low and middle-income nations. Low-income nations host roughly 1 / 4 of the world’s refugees and are anticipated to be disproportionately affected by rising inflation.

Syrians proceed to be the most displaced inhabitants – round 6.8 million folks of the nation had been displaced by the finish of 2021.

Refugees by country of origin at the end of 2021.

Refugees by nation of origin at the finish of 2021.
| Photo Credit: UNHCR Global Trends

Turkey (now formally the Republic of Türkiye) hosted 3.8 million refugees – the largest inhabitants worldwide – adopted by Colombia (1.8 million), Uganda (1.5 million), Pakistan (1.5 million), and Germany (1.3 million).

Refugees by host country at the end of 2021

Refugees by host nation at the finish of 2021
| Photo Credit: UNHCR Global Trends

In 2021, 57,500 refugees had been resettled – a minor enhance from 2020.

Refugee resettlement in the last decade

Refugee resettlement in the final decade
| Photo Credit: Data: UNHCR

The 12 months additionally noticed an escalation in present conflicts and numerous new ones flaring up round the world.

New displacements in 2021

New displacements in 2021
| Photo Credit: UNHCR Global Trends

According to the World Bank, 23 nations confronted excessive or medium-intensity conflicts in 2021.

Globally, 67 per cent of refugees and asylum seekers and 82 per cent of IDPs originated from/in nations affected by a meals disaster in 2021. Around 40 per cent of refugees and asylum seekers had been hosted by nations dealing with meals crises at the finish of 2021.


The Taliban regained management of Afghanistan in August 2021 as U.S. troops withdrew from the nation, bringing America’s longest battle to an in depth. The occasions main as much as the Taliban takeover noticed a big inhabitants of the nation being displaced inside Afghanistan in addition to into neighbouring nations like Iran and Pakistan. Over 2.7 million Afghan nationals had been displaced throughout borders by the finish of 2021. The variety of IDPs inside Afghanistan continued to rise for the fifteenth straight 12 months, UNHCR stated.


The army of Myanmar took over management of the nation in a coup in February 2021, igniting widespread violence. Many folks had been compelled to flee the nation whereas a big a part of the inhabitants turned displaced inside its borders. Rohingya refugees, an ethnic group in Myanmar that has confronted widespread persecution since 2017, proceed to be amongst the largest displaced teams globally. In 2021, the quantity reached virtually 1.2 million, with over 75 per cent of these hosted in Bangladesh.


Between February 24, 2022, and June 16, 2022, greater than 7.7 million border crossings have been recorded from Ukraine, turning Russia’s invasion of the nation into considered one of the worst humanitarian crises since World War II. Over 5 million particular person refugees have been recorded simply throughout Europe. More than seven million Ukrainians are at the moment displaced inside the nation.

However, it is value noting {that a} appreciable variety of Ukrainians have discovered refuge in predominantly high-income European nations. More than 2.8 million Ukrainian refugees have registered for schemes like momentary safety standing supplied by European Union (EU) member states. Other individuals who had been displaced till the finish of 2021 have been proven to have confronted way more dire situations and obtained much less of a welcome.

Venezuelans displaced overseas

Venezuelans proceed to go away their dwelling nation to flee violence, insecurity and threats, and shortages of meals, drugs and different important providers. Displacement from the nation has change into the second-largest exterior displacement disaster globally, with over six million Venezuelan refugees and migrants current round the world.

Refugees, people in refugee-like situations and Venezuelans displaced abroad at the end of 2021.

Refugees, folks in refugee-like conditions and Venezuelans displaced overseas at the finish of 2021.
| Photo Credit: UNHCR Global Trends

Climate change

According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 23 million had been estimated to have been displaced inside their nations in 2021 by excessive climate occasions like floods and droughts. As global temperatures rise, local weather change is anticipated to create an excellent bigger variety of refugees. The UNHCR report, nevertheless, notes that the impression of local weather change on displacement is not uniform. It consists of:

  • sudden onset occasions like storms, floods and wildfires that normally trigger a brief displacement restricted to inside a rustic
  • gradual onset occasions like droughts and sea-level rise that may result in eventual everlasting compelled migration.
  • local weather change-related battle that may embody competitors for important assets like water and a scarcity of meals crops

Asylum Seekers

In 2021, the variety of new particular person asylum functions registered globally elevated by 25 per cent to 1.4 million from 1.1 million. This was, nevertheless, nonetheless lower than pre-pandemic ranges. Unaccompanied or separated youngsters (UASC) accounted for 2 % of latest asylum claims.

The U.S. was the hottest alternative amongst refugees to hunt asylum, adopted by Germany, Mexico, Costa Rica, and France.

Major countries for individual registration of asylum seekers by the end of 2021

Major nations for particular person registration of asylum seekers by the finish of 2021
| Photo Credit: UNHCR Global Trends

The figures reinforce the inference that 72 per cent of refugees and Venezuelans displaced overseas stay in nations neighbouring their nation of origin, indicating that this can be a possible issue influencing an asylum seeker’s nation of alternative.

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