Dairy Farming Andhra Pradesh1

Dairy farming in Andhra Pradesh: Dairy farming is used for the long-term production of milk, which is practiced at the dairy plant for the eventual sale of a dairy product. The dairy farming business is lucrative these days. This is an eco-friendly business, and it can be started in any season. It is considered a thousand times better option than a job.

Dairy Farming in Andhra Pradesh
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A notable feature of dairy farming is that it does not require highly skilled and skilled labor. You can easily set up this form of business without any hassle. It is important to have the right dairy farming business plan, before starting a dairy farming business. You need to dedicate your time and effort 24 hours a day to your dairy farm. You do not have to start your dairy farm commercially. You can start your journey on a small scale, and as your business grows, you can grow it into a large-scale venture.

Andhra Pradesh is one of the most agriculturally developed states in India but still has a high level of rural poverty. Mixed crop and livestock farming is an important farming system used by more than 80% of the rural households in the state. Although milk production has increased significantly in Andhra Pradesh over the last decade, the potential role of dairy farming as a means of improving household income and generating rural employment is far from being fully exploited.

For the dairy sector to play a more significant role in rural development, there is an urgent need to develop dairy development programs that are affordable to it and focus on key production and financial parameters of small farms, especially for this area have significant effects. 

Guide on dairy farming in Andhra Pradesh, milk production trends, housing systems, dairy breeds, distribution, disease prevention, vaccination

How to Start Dairy Farming in Andhra Pradesh
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Milk production trends in Andhra Pradesh 

Andhra Pradesh (AP) accounts for 8.4% of the national dairy population and produces 7.6% of the country’s milk. Milk production in Andhra Pradesh is slightly higher than the Indian average and is growing rapidly. Farmgate milk prices, however, are slightly lower than the average for India.

There has been a significant increase in milk production in Andhra Pradesh, but the potential role of dairy farming as a tool to increase household income, and increase regional competitiveness in milk production remains to be realized. For dairy to play such a developmental role, the majority of small-scale dairy farmers urgently need to provide quality livestock services that are affordable and maximize impact on key production and economic factors of their farms. The dairy business has emerged as a subsidiary source of income. To increase dairy revenue, the state government has formulated a “fodder safety policy”. 

A ‘Dairy Development Ladder’ in Andhra Pradesh

Dairy development programs in Andhra Pradesh, as elsewhere, are not considered to address all the (risk) factors that ultimately determine the adoption and success of programs. It is questionable whether it would be practical for a single program to try to solve all the identified problems at once and it seems that a strategic partnership between existing programs would have to have strong complementary implications.

It has to offer a reliable and profitable milk price, access to affordable high-quality health services, livestock will need food, etc. This means that breeding efforts should be accompanied by complementary programs to the Andhra Pradesh Livestock Development Agency (APLDA). The need for a partner and/or other program building was highlighted in the ‘Dairy Development Ladder’ exercise conducted with stakeholders in Mehboob Nagar. 

The majority of small farms are unattractive and will disappear as farmers have better alternatives, large dairy farms represent a lucrative business in Andhra Pradesh. This critical situation of small-scale farms persists despite the long-running dairy development activities in the state. Detailed household and farm simulations were combined with the views of experts and farmers. Many promising interventions have been linked to the ‘dairy development ladder’ to gauge whether dairy competition for small farms can be extended to larger farms. 

Housing systems for dairy farming

Dairy housing systems vary widely around the world in terms of climate, dairy size, and food strategy. Housing must be protected from food, water, and related environmental conditions. Extreme temperatures are a major problem for livestock. Providing shade is a very common way to reduce heat stress. Fan or tunnel ventilation in warehouses can also be incorporated into the architecture of the barn structure. Requirements increase and thus increase food intake and decrease milk production.

Dairy cattle are often kept in warehouses during the winter months when temperatures are much lower. Which are warmed by the heat of their collective body. It is important to complete the feeding often when the grazing condition persists. Free stalls, warehouses, and open spaces are deep accommodation options where cattle are brought to graze at any time of the year.

Free stall warehouses are designed to give cows the freedom to choose when they are feeding, resting, drinking, or standing. Depending on the climate, they may be completely closed or open-air barns. Rest areas, called free stalls, are divided into beds with everything from mattresses to sand. Most barns are open to the naked, with the cattle free to enjoy as the weather permits. Open lots are dirt lots with shaded structures and a concrete pad where feed is provided. 

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Housing systems for dairy farming
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In terms of climate, dairy size, and food strategies, dairy housing systems vary greatly around the world. Farm owners should take an interest in cultivating fodder crops or cultivating land for livestock purposes. In general, the area of ​​land depends on the number of livestock that is likely to be stored. Usually, 1 acre of land is enough to feed about 7 to 10 cows. 

Shed – The fields should have a well-covered area before inviting cows to their farm. 

Dairy breeds available in Andhra Pradesh

Breeds of cattle and buffaloes 

Distribution of Indigenous Cattle Breeds – There are two native breeds of cattle in Andhra Pradesh namely Ongole and Punganur. 

Ongole

The Ongole breed is known for its ability to produce more milk and adapt to harsh conditions. Ongole is one of the oldest breeds of cattle in India, originating from the Ongole taluka of Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh. It adapts well to hot climates and tolerates extreme heat. They can grow on low and dry fodder and remain active producers till the age of 15. They are characterized by small and cool horns and large fan-shaped fleshy developments. 

These are breeds of large muscular cattle with a well-developed hump. Ongole is suitable for heavy draft work. They are also known as Nellore and their average milk production is 1000 kg/lactation. It is a prominent dual-purpose breed of Andhra Pradesh. India has vast natural resources of livestock wealth. The best breeds of cattle like Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi, Ongole are produced in the country. Andhra Pradesh is proud of the Ongole breed of cattle.

Andhra Pradesh is the ancestral home of the Ongole race. They are available in Prakasam, Nellore, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, and Kurnool districts. It is known for its multi-purpose like draft, milk, beef, sports, aesthetic value, etc. With the involvement of all stakeholders. 

Punganur

In the case of Punganur, it was prepared by the then rulers of Punganur taluka of Chittoor district. They have crescent-shaped horns and are small to medium in size, so they are used for farming in light soil. They live only at night and graze in wastelands.

It is mainly connected to Livestock Research Station, Palamaner, Chittor District, Andhra Pradesh, Shri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati. Some animals are also cared for by private breeders. It can range from white, gray, or light brown to dark brown or red. Sometimes, red, brown, or black spots are also seen in white animals. Due to its short stature, this breed has a wide forehead and short horns.

Distribution of Indigenous Cattle Breeds 

Deoni

Deoni originated in western Andhra Pradesh. Deoni milk production is between 636 – 1230 kg per lactation and their average interval is 447 days. Bullocks are used for heavy cultivation. 

Hallikar

Hallikar cattle are small animals that are moderately tall and of medium body size. They are usually white to gray and occasionally black. They also have white marks or random spots in the eyes, cheeks, neck, or shoulder area. 

Distribution of buffalo breeds 

Murraha

It is a breed of water buffalo that is kept for milk production. The color of the buffalo is completely black, sometimes with white markings on the face or legs. Their necks are long and slender in females and thick and large in males. Their ears are small, thin, and alert. 

Nagpuri

It is one of the best breeds of buffalo that combines milk and drought characteristics in good proportions in adverse weather conditions and this is a river-type buffalo. This is the Central Indian breed. The animals are kept in a semi-rigid management system. The average body weight of a man is 525kg whereas a woman weighs about 425kg. In this area, buffaloes and heifers are raised mainly for fat production. The breed is maintained for milk and draft purposes. The animals of this breed are well adapted to the harsh climate of the region. 

Nutrition management for dairy animals

Nutrition management is by far one of the biggest costs for a fodder dairy producer for their livestock, whether it provides the land they graze on or the crops they grown or purchased. Dairy producers spend more time and effort maintaining their pastures and thus providing fodder to their cattle. Pasture management techniques such as grazing are common for milk production. Food should be formulated differently based on each animal’s growth rate, milk production, and reproductive status for maximum productivity. 

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Nutrition management for dairy animals
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Cleaning management in dairy farming

Most of the cattle are managed by illiterate and uninformed rural people, who ignore the basic concepts of cleanliness and hygiene. Animal house and surroundings. Hygiene refers to the cleanliness of the premises while adopting hygiene measures that eliminate unhealthy elements and ensure the health and ensure the creation of good quality products.

Creates conditions The farm enclosure should also be clean, with daily sweeping and dishwashing in the field areas. Manure and water drain cleaning should be practiced regularly. In addition, we should also focus on livestock management and give proper weight to improve India’s milk production. 

Water supply – An important requirement for the drinking and sanitation purposes of the shed is the supply of clean water. Arrangements can be made by providing overhead tanks. 

Disease prevention for dairy animals in Andhra Pradesh

The disease is one of the biggest problems of dairy farms. This is a constant threat and may make it necessary to remove valuable animals from the herd when they are exposed to the disease. Good herd management includes cleaning, isolating sick or injured animals, keeping the premises free from hazards that may cause injury, and constant protection from poisonous plants and other materials.

Some diseases, such as tuberculosis, require injections. Others, such as mastitis, require constant treatment. The only way to stop the spread of the infection is to slaughter the animal. Foot and mouth disease is the most notorious of them. Strict measures have been taken by most governments to exclude or control the disease.

Vaccination program for dairy animals in Andhra Pradesh

Deworming must be applied to achieve beneficial results in dairy farms before proceeding with any vaccination. Even so, deworming should be given regularly, and the veterinarian will likely contact you about it. Diseases monitored under the vaccination program include foot and mouth disease, Theileriosis, Rabies, Brucella, Anthrax, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, and other diseases. 

Schemes under dairy farming in Andhra Pradesh

Pasu Kranthi Scheme

Dairy farmers in several districts have urged the government to check the quality of dairy cattle, alleging that the buffaloes and cows they have purchased in recent years are in poor health. The farmers alleged that there were irregularities in the procurement of dairy buffaloes and cows and called for steps to ensure procurement of high-yielding cattle to save the dairy sector. Under the scheme, Murrah, Gir, Sahiwal, CB Jersey, and other types of dairy cattle will be provided to farmers in Andhra Pradesh through agencies in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Haryana.

Andhra Pradesh Livestock Development Agency (APLDA) 

National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCB) to implement a major program of livestock reorganization in the state with the financial assistance of the State Government. APLDA provides cost-based livestock rearing services at the farmer’s doorstep, with a total capacity of 105.83 lakh cows and buffaloes belonging to 3 million farmers spread across 28245 revenue villages of the state. 

APLDA works at the district level as a satellite body with 13 District Livestock Development Associations (DLDAs) to reorganize breeding activities in the state. Both institutions have independent but well-defined roles. The APLDA has a commercial role in developing standard inputs while the DLDA has a promotional and developmental role, arranging services for the development of cows and buffaloes. 

Breeding Policy for dairy farming in Andhra Pradesh 

The breeding policy features developed for Andhra Pradesh is in line with the National Breeding Policy, they are;

  • Upgrading of non-scripted as well as graded buffaloes with Murrah breeds throughout the state. 
  • Promoting the use of indigenous species such as Ongole and Deoni in their breeding tracts.

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Breeding Policy for dairy farming in AP
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Cross-breeding of non-descript local cattle with exotic breeds such as HF in Jersey and select districts in all districts. Cross-breed cattle combine with cross-breed semen to ensure foreign blood levels of about 50%. The main objective of the breeding policy is to improve milk production in non-scripted cattle and buffaloes to improve milk production and draft power in indigenous cattle.

An artificial insemination is an important tool in enforcing the breeding policy, however, the Organized Natural Service (ONS) operates in areas where AI is difficult to introduce. Work is underway to review the current breeding policy and develop a revised policy.

NABARD subsidy for dairy farming

Dairy farming is a largely unorganized sector in India and a major source of livelihood in rural areas. To bring structure to the dairy farming industry and support the establishment of dairy farms, the Department of Animal, Dairy and Fisheries launched the “Venture Capital Scheme for Dairy and Poultry” in 2005. Dairy farming is a big business in India and milk production is increasing every year. The objectives of the scheme include;

  • Promoting the establishment of modern dairy farms for the production of pure milk. 
  • Upgrading quality and traditional technology for commercial milk handling.
  • To create self-employment and provide infrastructure for the primarily unorganized sector. 

How to calculate the cost of starting a dairy farm in Andhra Pradesh

Dairy farming can be a profitable business, but finding the amount of capital needed to start a dairy farm can be a daunting task. To calculate the cost of starting a dairy farm, get started by following a few simple steps.

Establish the total area of ​​your dairy farm and the total area includes pasture land or grazing area, fields for growing crops, corrals for keeping livestock in the winter season. Fixed costs include rent, variable costs include fuel, fodder, fertilizer, total and price of cattle for sale of bullocks, maintenance of machinery, etc. 

Multiply the number of livestock you can keep at home by the basic monthly animal care costs. Itemize the equipment you will need to lease or purchase. Remember to include milking machines, disinfectants, and milk storage tanks as well as computers and other office equipment. There is another value to consider in veterinary care. Most dairy farms use a combination of vaccines, hormone injections, and supplements to maximize milk production. You should also assess injuries and illnesses.

Your local veterinarian will be able to give you an estimate of the specific items needed for your area and the per capita cost of each item, as well as the cost of emergency care. Production has been outlawed, so there is little to consider when it comes to veterinary care. Estimate the monthly operating costs of your non-livestock. Include your mortgage, utility bill, payroll, farm vehicles, etc. Check with your local government to find out if it has a licensing fee for starting a dairy farm.

Reasons for the failure of modern dairy farms in Andhra Pradesh 

The following is a list of reasons for the failure of new dairy farms. 

Failure of automation and labor issues

Most new farm owners wanted to make farms fully automated. Manual milking buffaloes are difficult to adapt to milking machines which requires time and patience. When they did not work as planned, they destroyed only milking machines and other machinery.

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Reasons for the failure of modern dairy farms in Andhra Pradesh 
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Started dairy farms with no knowledge about dairy animals

There were mainly 4 groups of people who started modern dairy farms. The first group was the locals who suddenly became rich (by any means) and had extra cash. The second group was NRIs who collected their hard-earned money. The third group was software professionals who were frustrated with their jobs and wanted to get back to the roots of their farming. The fourth group was unemployed educated youth from upper-middle-class families. All four groups of people have never had experience in dairy farming. They all had good intentions and wanted to apply modern design and technology. But nothing works if you don’t know how to differentiate between male and female buffalo. 

People got into dairy farming for money

As the name implies, dairy farming is a form of farming and not a farming business. Farming requires a great deal of knowledge and a great deal of patience. Many failed dairy farms were started by highly educated people and most of them built forts in the air. They used the principles of excel sheets and project management in dairy farming. 

Big bang formula

Most hi-tech farms went for the big bang formula. They built big sheds and bought a large number of animals at the same time. When you are new to dairy farming and your herd is big, it is very difficult to handle the problems. To maintain steady monthly milk production, the purchase of animals should have been stopped. Some people even made the mistake of setting up a high-end processing plant when not a single drop of milk came out on their farm.

Not understanding the reproductive cycle

Many new farmers were focusing on milking only after purchasing animals. Most of them did not know that the animal should be pregnant by the fourth or fifth month of calving. They did not know how to detect heat, and surprisingly, farms with large numbers of dairy buffaloes did not have oxen. Therefore, they relied entirely on local government veterinarians for artificial insemination, which caused the heat cycle to disappear.

By the time these new dairy farmers realized the mistake, the animals were in the eighth or ninth month of milking. If you have 50 animals and if most of them are not pregnant and are in the 8th month of lactation then this means they have to feed 50 non-dairy animals for the next 9 to 10 months which there is a lot of damage. 

Not taking care of calves

Many of these failed farms did not take proper care of calves. Proper care of female calves is essential for long-term success. Farms of 100 lactating buffaloes but with only 20 to 30 calves. The rest of the calves had already died. It may not be a big problem in the short run but it can be a big loss in the long run. All successful dairy farmers will tell you the value of female calves as they will start milking in 3 to 4 years. 

Improper management of food and fodder

Many farmers provided good feed (paddy) and fodder (grass, hay) during the initial stage. When milk production decreased after 5 or 6 months, they reduced fodder and food. Some people cut the feed so fast that the animals were half the size. The diet is based on the animal’s body weight and production. During the dry months, you can reduce the dose a little but not too much. Due to nutritional imbalances, there were animal health and reproductive problems. 



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