Crop Watch: Delicate climate fuels BYDV danger in cereals

 

The gentle autumn has led to ahead crops of oilseed rape in areas that noticed fast institution.

Cereal crops have benefited from the gentle climate, too, however these situations are prone to gas the danger of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) danger with ultimate situations for migrating aphids.

West: Neil Potts

Matford Arable (Devon)

At the time of writing, it’s starting to appear like the climate may lastly have damaged, with rain within the forecast on daily basis for the subsequent week. We have, nonetheless, had an excellent run for finishing the maize harvest and planting any deliberate following crops.

The winter OSR has established the very best it has achieved for a number of years, thanks largely to decrease flea beetle pressures and decrease than traditional slug populations.

See additionally: British quinoa growers wished as crop demand rises

With most crops planted comparatively early, they’re now fairly large and rising quick within the higher-than-average temperatures we’re experiencing.

Consequently, many crops have reached the six to eight leaf stage in early to mid-October and have acquired an software of fungicide for mild leaf spot and phoma mixed with a plant progress regulator.

Winter cereals have emerged very quickly after which gone on to develop rapidly as properly, which means that the majority crops have now established very properly. The down facet is the hotter and drier climate is good for migrating aphids.

BYDV stress

With comparatively excessive numbers of aphids being caught in traps, it’s honest to imagine that the barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) stress goes to be fairly excessive.

Many crops have already acquired two BYDV insecticide functions, and except we get a reasonably fast reversal in temperatures, the mid-September-drilled crops will most likely require a 3rd.

Due to the great situations, most deliberate pre-emergence herbicides have gone on in good order and look like working properly.

The exception to that is the place seed-beds have been a bit cloddy and because the clods have began to interrupt down with rain, we’re seeing grassweed germinate.

This actually underlines the rule that residual herbicides are likely to carry out greatest when utilized to finer seed-beds.

The maize crop has this yr been extraordinarily variable in its efficiency. The fundamental driver of this has been the drought.

Drier areas have suffered worse than those who managed to get some rainfall by June, July and August. Seed-bed preparation has additionally been a contributor to the issues with some crops.

Anywhere that seed-beds weren’t deep, properly labored and compaction handled, have carried out much less properly.

On the entire, crops that had been min-tilled have additionally struggled this yr, the place for the final couple of seasons the approach has been fairly profitable if achieved correctly.

With most deliberate autumn plantings in, there may be simply the tidying up of BYDV management functions and a few post-emergence herbicides left to do earlier than crops will be put to mattress for the winter, with loads of potential to stay up for as we go in to subsequent spring.

North: David Martindale

Arable Alliance (Yorkshire)

After such a dry and simple harvest, many had been fearing the autumn sowing marketing campaign can be the time when Mother Nature would restore the steadiness by bringing a number of moist climate. In actuality, dry situations prevailed for a lot of the primary drilling interval.

Cereals have now largely been sown, with solely these following not too long ago lifted root crops nonetheless remaining.

Seed-beds and general institution of autumn-sown cereals have been glorious. It is uncommon to see heavy land crops being rolled in mid-October and much more uncommon to be sporting quick sleeves in late October.

These gentle temperatures have aided the fast emergence of cereals, with oilseed rape reworking from its flea beetle ravaged state to spectacular canopies.

Slugs have induced remarkably few issues to this point in winter cereals, confined to a small variety of heavy-land fields sometimes following oilseed rape.

Pre-emergence and early post-emergence herbicides in winter wheat and barley look like working properly at controlling blackgrass and ryegrass. Good seed-beds will definitely be contributing to profitable herbicide efficiency.

Spray days

Recent persistent robust winds have performed havoc with herbicide functions, consequently inflicting some slippage in blackgrass and ryegrass management.

Grassweed management seems to be the least spectacular the place crops had been sown early, seed-beds had been cloddy and situations remained dry thus lowering herbicide efficacy.

In winter wheat, it has been helpful to see how the brand new herbicide cinmethylin has carried out in opposition to present requirements.

Oilseed rape crops have grown quickly by October on account of a mix of moisture and above-average temperatures.

The decline of grownup cabbage stem flea beetles have additionally allowed crops to lastly develop unhindered, though that will quickly change as small larvae are current within the leaf petioles.

Blackgrass is starting to indicate indicators of dying again following the applying of clethodim. It will quickly be time to contemplate propyzamide to finish the grassweed herbicide management programme.

The addition of aminopyralid will enhance broad-leaved weed management, particularly for weeds similar to mayweed, which appears to be in abundance in crops this season.

Phoma is starting to seem and can quickly attain threshold on prone varieties the place a fungicide shall be required. Light leaf spot management may even be an element when contemplating fungicide alternative.

East: Ben Pledger

Farmacy (Bedfordshire/Hertfordshire)

Cereal drilling is just about achieved on this space aside from later crops on account of go in after beet or potatoes. The temptation was excessive to crack on sooner than deliberate from a blackgrass management perspective, with good seed-beds and the reminiscence of the autumn of 1976 behind some minds.

Taking the chance to ascertain crops properly made sense. Off the again of this, institution has been superb.

Blackgrass is coming, nonetheless, in most locations, pre-emergence chemistry is having an impact, though there may be the necessity to prime up with residual chemistry as soils get wetter. Flufenacet-based merchandise shall be used right here, preserving in thoughts label restrictions from earlier functions.

The hotter than traditional climate for this time of yr is seeing aphids colonise in crops, and the necessity to return to fields with an insecticide for BYDV. This will be mixed with the residual herbicide top-up software.

Beans

Some growers have drilled winter beans already. Depth has been the important thing right here, particularly as deep as you may presumably get with the drill.

Wishing to utilize ultimate drilling situations has left the issue of time between drilling and emergence, and the way late to time the pre-emergence herbicide of propyzamide and pendimethalin. This is to verify it’s as cool as doable for the propyzamide, and in addition permitting for a flush of weeds excessive, which will be taken out with glyphosate in the identical cross.

A phrase of warning right here – with soil temperatures as heat as they’re, I’ve already seen beans drilled to 10cm (4in) deep rising inside 14 days. Don’t get caught out, as post-emergence weed management within the crop is proscribed and costly.

Hopefully, temperatures are dropping off now, which must also make it possible to blow some cooler air by heaps of grain.

Store temperatures are nonetheless excessive in locations, with grain going into retailer within the peak of the summer time at as much as 40C. Hotspots have been cropping up, with remedial motion wanted the place recognized.

South: Tod Hunnisett

AICC (Sussex)

It has been a comparatively type autumn on this a part of the nation. Most farms are drilled up and sprayed into distinctive situations.

Warm soils have meant quick emergence and lots of crops have outgrown anticipated slug harm with out therapy. Having mentioned this, others have suffered badly – my worst conditions being after short-term grass for some cause.

Quite just a few crops are exhibiting an impact from the pre-emergence herbicides. I by no means fear an excessive amount of about this within the autumn, it’s usually an indication that they’re going to work very properly on the goal weeds.

In the previous, autumn situations which have led to crop impact (ie, fast emergence into heat soils) have typically resulted in good institution adopted by good yields.

Forward OSR

Oilseed rape was drilled a bit later this yr on account of the dearth of moisture in August. However, crops that went into moisture, even later drilled, appear like they had been planted in July.

Once once more, I don’t fear an excessive amount of about this – a crop very ahead at Christmas is a pleasant drawback to have.

Even mid-September-drilled crops are sufficiently big to clean your wellies on the finish of October. Recommendations are stepping into for propyzamide to be utilized when the soils calm down.

Winter beans are being drilled as I write, with most additionally having propyzamide as a pre-emergence spray.

Last yr it labored exceptionally properly, and with the current rain, hopefully, it can do one other good job this yr. I dread to suppose what we’ll do if propyzamide disappears, so good stewardship is crucial.

It’s a brand new outing for the lively cinmethylin this yr in wheat. So far, the place I’ve used it pre-emergence, it appears to be doing an excellent job, notably on ryegrass. I’m trying ahead to after we can apply it to barley (and perhaps even OSR).