Crop rotation – History and principles of crop rotation
The following is a review of the history of crop rotation and crop rotation. When we comprehend the principles of crop rotation the various systems and theories behind those systems begin to make sense.
Attention has been paid to crop rotation for the last several years. Awareness of the problem, increasing the acreage area of the disease crop, reducing rotation, reducing summer fruits, reducing planting and focusing on zero cultivation are mainly related to the disease. Recent advances in integrated weed management, and the need to include environmental management to optimize water and nutrient utilization.
The reason for using the term “crop rotation” is because the term is familiar to most growers. However, it should be noted that some growers follow crop rotation where they take a specific crop in a particular year of the rotation cycle, in each field (e.g. wheat – farm peas – flax – barley). Instead, they follow crop orders (e.g. grains – cereals – oilseeds – pulses). This is because commodity prices fluctuate and the most important factor in deciding what to increase in the coming year is the expected commodity prices. Maintaining accurate records of herbicide use is another important factor when selecting varieties for crop and rotation.
It should also be noted that no one turns to the right. There is no single rotation that will optimize the use of water and nutrients, reduce disease and weed problems, and most importantly give the highest return per acre. The ‘best’ rotation depends on available humidity and nutrients, disease and weed levels, weed control records, availability of equipment, commodity prices, risk taking ability and willingness. The ‘best’ rotation for the same area and for the same area can vary from year to year.
Why crop rotation? | Why Is Crop Rotation Important?
If you plant the same crop in the same place for years, you will get a collection of specific pests and diseases for that crop. Different crops take different levels of nutrients from the soil and inevitably these become unbalanced, one depleting nutrients but the other leaving plenty. This is often referred to as ‘sick soil’. Even the addition of fertilizers is unlikely to help because trace elements and micronutrients are depleted in the same way. Biofertilizers: What is organic manure?
What is crop rotation?
Crop rotation is a method of planting different crops on the same soil, respectively, to improve soil health, adapt to soil nutrients, and cope with pests and weeds. For example, suppose a farmer planted a corn field. When the corn harvest is over, he can plant the beans, as the corn uses a lot of nitrogen and the beans return nitrogen to the soil. Simple rotations can involve two or three crops, and complex rotations can involve dozens or more. Different plants have different nutritional requirements and are vulnerable to a variety of microorganisms and pests. If a farmer plants the same crop in the same place every year, which is common in conventional farming, he is constantly extracting the same nutritious soil. Pests and diseases happily make themselves permanent home because the source of their favorite food is guaranteed. Due to such monoculture, increasing levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides become necessary to keep production high while keeping bugs and diseases away.
What are the types of crop rotation
The development of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is called crop rotation. Depending on the period, crop rotation can be of the following three types:
1. One year rotation
- Maize – Mustard
- Rice – Wheat
2. Two year rotation
- Maize- Potato- Sugarcane- Peas
3. Three year rotation
- Rice – Wheat – Green gram – Mustard
- Sugarcane – Berseem
- Cotton – Oats – Sugarcane – Peas – Maize – Wheat
Crop rotation selection:
- Source of moisture (by rain or irrigation).
- Condition of soil nutrients.
- Accessibility of sources of info (like manure, pesticides, labor and machine power).
- The duration of the crop is short or long
- Marketing and processing facilities.
Benefits of crop rotation:
- Crop rotation helps to replenish soil fertility.
- This restricts selective nutrients.
- It protects against certain crop diseases and pests.
- It increases productivity by increasing soil fertility.
Principles and benefits of crop rotation
Crop Rotation is the process of growing one crop after another on a single piece of land at different times (seasons) without interfering with soil fertility.
Successful cropping depends on the selection of the right crop on the right soil.
Crop rotation principles
The basic principles of crop rotation are as follows:
- Deep rooted crops Shallow rooted crops like cotton, pea-potato, lentil, castor, gram etc.
- Decot crops should be rotated by monocot crops like mustard, potato-rice, wheat-sugarcane.
- Non-leguminous crops without legumes and vice versa (green gram-wheat) should be successful.
- End crops including potato, sorghum, sugarcane, castor-sunhemp, black gram, sorghum should be successful.
- After cereal crops, deciduous crops like wheat-dhancha, black gram should be taken.
- Short-term crops like sugarcane, napier, lucerne-sorghum, black gram, groundnut should be successful in long-term crops.
- Crops susceptible to soil pathogens and tolerant trap crops like sugarcane-marigold, mustard (for nematodes) should be taken after parasitic weeds; Tobacco- rice, pulses (for orobanche); Pearl millet- castor (for striga); lucern, berseem- oats (for cuscuta).
- Crops with problematic weeds for clean crops / multi-cut crops and other different crops like wheat-bran rice for Phalaris secondary; Berseem- Potatoes for Chicorium Entibus; Rice-vegetables for echinochloa crusgalli.
- Crops require heavy irrigation and intensive labor, followed by less water and labor like sugarcane, rice-green and sesame.
Benefits of crop rotation
Proper crop rotation has the following advantages:
- Higher income without additional investment.
- Increase soil fertility and microbial activity.
- Avoid accumulation of toxic substances.
- The legumes in the cropping system, absorb nitrogen from the atmosphere and enrich the soil with their root system.
- Great use of nutrients and soil moisture.
- Insurance against natural disasters.
- Maintain soil health by avoiding pests, diseases and weed problems.
- Distribute proper labor, energy and capital throughout the year.
- High probability of providing a variety of goods.
- Slow but steady yield, which is beneficial to retail and small farmers.
- Deep rooted crops work under the plowing layer of the soil.
Plan crop rotation
Plan where individual crops will be planted each year. Sowing beds organized by the plant family: Leguminosae (pea and bean family), Solanaceae (nightshades family), Brassicaceae (cabbage family), Umbelliferae (carrot family), Alliaceae (onion family), Cucurbitaceae (marrow family), and Chenopodiaceae (seed family) . In a notebook, draw a sketch of your garden bed and label each one with a number. Every spring you record the planting of each sapling so that no crop will be planted in two seasons in the same season.
If you have a garden this year and haven’t created a map showing where specific vegetables grow, do it now to prepare for next year.
Start small with three crops
Early gardeners can maintain and rejuvenate the soil using a three-bed technique. Rotate this group of crops between three beds for three years. Plant the first group on the bed of the second group next year, the second in the bed of the third group, and the first bed in the second year of the third group.
- Umbelliferae (carrot family): Carrot, celery, dill, parsley, cilantro, parsley Condition the soil with compost before planting – plants in the carrot family enjoy a soil rich in organic matter. Adding compost creates a crop of peas and beans next year, which works best in rich soils.
- Brassicaceae (cabbage family): radish, broccoli, black, Brussels sprouts The plants in the cabbage family are heavy feeders, which require soil improvement. At the end of the growing season add compost to the soil, which prepares the beds for the next year’s crop of the carrot family.
- Leguminosae (pea and bean family): All types of peas and beans Peas and soybeans fix their own nitrogen from the air and feed extra into the soil. They make beds for the next 2 years of crops, both of which benefit from the infusion of nitrogen.
Crop rotation does not change the fertility, mulch and need for regular testing of your garden soil, but should help bring the season closer together.