Civil penalties can come at a premium – Civil Law

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The latest Federal Court determination in Australian
Competition and Consumer Commission v Trivago NV (No 2)
v Trivago) has confirmed courts is not going to draw back from ordering
massive civil penalties, the place acceptable.

The Court was required to contemplate whether or not an acceptable marker
of ‘profit’ – a properly-established penalty think about
civil penalty proceedings – was income or revenue. Noting
that each are related, the Court confirmed that it’s not restricted
to a consideration of revenue. Instead, it is ready to (and may)
look to the (usually a lot bigger) measure of income.

A refresher – how are civil penalties calculated?

In addition to setting out a framework to determine the utmost
penalty, laws usually refers back to the imposition of a pecuniary
penalty that the Court considers is
‘acceptable’.1 The major driver of
appropriateness is normal and particular deterrence; and selling
the general public curiosity in compliance.2 Penalties should be of
such a magnitude in order to discourage a wrongdoer “from the cynical
calculation concerned in weighing up the chance of penalty in opposition to the
earnings to comprised of contravention”.3

Against the backdrop of deterrence, there are a number of different
elements that courts should contemplate: the character and extent of the
conduct, circumstances during which it occurred, ensuing loss and
hurt, and advantages accruing to contravenors from the conduct, amongst
different issues.4

ACCC v Trivago

The determination in ACCV v Trivago solely issues reduction. The
legal responsibility determination was handed down in February 2020, which itself
was the topic of an unsuccessful enchantment by Trivago throughout

The Court awarded a complete of $44.7 million in pecuniary
penalties for Trivago’s contraventions of sections 29(1)(i) and
34 of the Australian Consumer Law
(ACL).5 This makes it one of many
highest penalties awarded for breaches of the ACL and positively one
of the very best following a contested listening to on legal responsibility and on
reduction. It follows from latest selections in Australian
Competition and Consumer Commission v Australian Institute of
Professional Education Pty Ltd (In Liq) (No 5)

(2021)6 (the place $153 million was ordered, and the quantum
of the penalty was not opposed by the liquidators), and
Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft v Australian Competition and
Consumer Commission
(2021)7 ($125 million, in
circumstances the place the events had submitted a joint penalty of
$75 million was acceptable, which the Court discovered to be manifestly

The contraventions involved Trivago’s deceptive
promoting marketing campaign and web site presentation over greater than a
two-and-a-half 12 months interval. In quick, Trivago’s conduct
involved the usage of deceptive commercials – that its
web site makes it simple for customers to ‘discover the perfect resort
for the very best value’ – and deceptive web site design
– together with that customers would contemplate that the ‘Top
Position Offer’ on its web site was the most cost effective supply, amongst
different contraventions. The Court was very crucial of Trivago’s
contraventions, holding that its conduct was extraordinarily critical.

In reaching its award of $44.7 million in civil penalties, the
Court said that “pecuniary penalties totalling this quantity
are acceptable within the circumstances of this case, and are
mandatory to realize the needs of particular and normal
deterrence”, highlighting the significance of deterrence within the
context of civil penalty proceedings.

When weighing related elements, the Court noticed that underneath
the ACL, the utmost penalty in accordance with the statutory
framework amounted to a whole lot of thousands and thousands of {dollars}, if no more;
referred to the substantial loss or harm of at least $30 million
to customers attributable to Trivago’s contraventions; famous that
Trivago had derived substantial income from its contravening
conduct, and referred to income when detailing Trivago’s dimension
and monetary place.

In assessing Trivago’s advantages from the contraventions, the
Court noticed that there had been a distinction between the events
at trial as as to whether ‘income’ or ‘revenue’ was
the suitable marker of ‘profit’. The ACCC had focussed
on income, and argued that there was no authority for the
proposition that the one measure of profit was revenue (as put by

It was a vital matter, as Trivago’s complete income for
the 2017 to 2019 calendar years was between €839 million and
€1.035 billion,8 whereas the worldwide enterprise
operated with destructive or very slim revenue margins over the identical
durations. In phrases of Australian generated income, Trivago made
roughly $206.8 million between 2017 – 2019, with
between 73% and 80% of that income spent on promoting over the
identical durations.

On the ACCC’s view, Australian income was a related
consideration going to profit in addition to Trivago’s dimension (and
supporting the ACCC’s evaluation that a penalty of at least $90
million was acceptable); whereas Trivago contended its low revenue
supported a a lot decrease penalty (arguing for $15 million).

In the actual circumstances of this case, the first
expense decreasing Trivago’s Australian generated revenue was
promoting: the identical promoting that the Court had discovered to be
severely deceptive. In the ACCC’s view, it will have been
inappropriate to view Trivago’s ‘profit’ as accruing
from revenue solely, when it had made the enterprise determination to spend
its income on a deceptive promoting marketing campaign.

Justice Moshinsky concluded that each income and revenue have been
related, observing that “Insofar as Trivago submits that the
income figures are usually not related for the needs of assessing
advantages, I don’t settle for that proposition”.

His Honour thought of it essential to say extra concerning the
intersection between Trivago’s income, revenue and the
penalties ordered. The judgement states:

“… the entire of the above penalties is many multiples of
Trivago’s revenue from the contravening conduct, and plenty of
multiples of its web revenue from its Australian operations for the
2017, 2018 and 2019 calendar years… However, within the circumstances
of this case, I contemplate it mandatory for the needs of particular
and normal deterrence to repair penalties which are far larger than
the revenue Trivago earned from its contravening conduct. I contemplate
that a complete penalty of the order proposed by Trivago (as much as $15
million) wouldn’t mirror the seriousness of the contraventions
and can be seen as an “acceptable price of doing enterprise. I
be aware that the penalty proposed by Trivago is barely half of the
estimated loss and harm suffered by customers (roughly $30

Trivago’s calculation of revenue in the course of the related interval
was not the topic of debate on this continuing. However, revenue
figures can rely on enterprise and accounting selections made by the
organisation the topic of regulatory overview or intervention.
Methods used to calculate revenue and figures offered to the Court
– and the significance of the general context which must be
thought of when viewing revenue – have been questioned in
different Federal Court selections.9

Where does this go away companies?

Courts clearly proceed to know normal and particular
deterrence as a key issue when ordering a civil penalty. In the
ACL context at least, ACCC v Trivago has confirmed that when
contemplating the ‘profit’ accruing to an entity as a outcome
of contravening conduct, every of income and revenue can be
related to the Court’s willpower.

Where companies with massive income take enterprise or accounting
selections which end in low reported revenue figures or maybe
low reported Australian revenue figures, that is unlikely to result in
a decrease evaluation of an acceptable civil penalty.

This leaves companies with little question that enormous penalties will
be sought by regulators and can be awarded by courts.

If your enterprise is the topic of investigation and civil
penalty proceedings by a regulator, you need to be conscious of the
regulator’s capacity to attract in your income (moderately than
revenue) determine as a related issue when arguing for a explicit


1 See, for instance, Schedule 2 to the
Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), sections 76,

2 Commonwealth v Director, Fair Work
Building Industry Inspectorate
(2015) 252 CLR 482,

3 Singtel Optus Pty Ltd v
(2012) 287 ALR 24, [63], cited with approval by the High
Court in ACCC v TPG Internet Pty Ltd (2013) 250 CLR 640,
[64] – [66]

4 See, for instance, the modified ‘French
elements’ in Singtel Optus Pty Ltd v
(2012) 287 ALR 24, [63]

5 Which is Schedule 2 to the Competition
and Consumer Act 2010

6 397 ALR 208

7 284 FCR 24

8 earlier than declining considerably throughout 2020,
largely because of the COVID pandemic

9 See, for instance, Volkswagen at
[147] – [166]

The content material of this text is meant to supply a normal
information to the subject material. Specialist recommendation must be sought
about your particular circumstances.

    Lawyers Weekly
Law agency of the 12 months

Employer of Choice for Gender Equality

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