Banana Plant Cultivation Practices and Farming Administration

The banana plant is the world’s largest herbaceous perennial plant and a member of the Musaceae household. Bananas are grown for his or her fleshy, curved fruit. There’s a sturdy pseudostem (not a stem, as it’s comprised of rolled leaf bases), and the leaves are organized spirally on the high of the plant.

Nendran Banana Production in India
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Amongst fruit crops, bananas rank first in manufacturing and third within the space in India. Fruit manufacturing accounts for 33% of the realm and 13% of the overall manufacturing. Maharashtra has the very best manufacturing, adopted by Tamil Nadu. A nationwide common of 12 tons per acre is achieved by Maharashtra, which produces 26 tons per acre. Kerala, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Assam are main banana-producing states.

Nendran banana manufacturing in India

Nendran banana

Nendran, the business plantain selection in Kerala, occupies 50 % of the overall space within the state & most amount of the fruit is bought regionally. Small amount is exported to the center east, with a goal of a big Indian group. Additionally, separate AEZ in Kerala for bananas has boosted the export of plantain. Presently cargo carried out by air is constrained by the upper bills concerned. This protocol of sea cargo is ready with nationwide & worldwide references, the place sensible trials have been performed for the cargo’s high quality.

It’s used for each desk and processing functions. In recent times, business cultivation of Nendran has exploded in Tamil Nadu. Nendran is understood to show appreciable variety in plant stature, pseudostem coloration, presence or absence of male axis, bunch dimension, and so forth. The bunch has 5-6 arms weighing about 12-15 kg. Fruits have a definite neck with thick inexperienced pores and skin turning buff yellow on ripening. Fruits stay as starchy even on ripening. Nendran is vulnerable to Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV), nematodes, and borers.

Particular options

  • It is likely one of the necessary varieties for the processing trade.
  • They’re largely grown in Trichirapalli and Coimbatore districts.
  • Fruits are eaten ripe and uncooked or used as a vegetable within the mature unripe situation.
  • Fruits stay as starchy even on ripening.
  • The plant has distinct pink coloration in pseudostem.
  • Bunch not compact, 12-15 kgs, 4-6 arms, three outstanding ridges, distinct nipple.
  • Fruits – massive, lengthy, thick, peel – thick and leathery, golden yellow, peels with problem.
  • Pulp – agency, flesh-colored, core pretty conspicuous delicate taste, medium candy.
  • It has good retaining high quality and isn’t appropriate for ratoon crop.
  • Crop period 11-12 months.
  • Culinary Nendran is a dual-purpose selection used for dessert and culinary.
  • Nendran Varieties: Nedunendran, Chengalikodan, and Attunendran & Nendran are grown all through Kerala. The outstanding districts are Thrissur, Ernakulam, Malappuram, Calicut, Palghat, and Wynads.

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Banana Fruit
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Soil necessities for Nendran banana

Bananas are heavy feeders, so soil fertility is necessary for profitable cultivation. Bananas have a restricted root zone, making them one of many uncommon fruits that do. Thus, depth and drainage are two of a very powerful elements when selecting banana soil. For bananas to thrive, the soil ought to be wealthy, well-drained, fertile, moisture-retentive, and include loads of natural matter.

A pH vary of 6.5-7.5 is right for banana cultivation. It’s best to domesticate bananas on alluvial or volcanic soils. In India, bananas are grown on numerous soil varieties, together with heavy clay soil of the Cauvery delta, alluvial soils of the Gangetic delta, black loam in Maharashtra, coastal sand loams, and pink lateritic soil within the hilly tracts of Kerala. Bananas are well-known for rising in these areas.

Local weather & temperature for Nendran banana cultivation

Tropical and subtropical climates are appropriate for banana farming. Cultivating bananas is feasible in areas with a relative humidity of 70 to 75% and a temperature vary of 15 to 35 levels Celsius. Chilling damage happens when the temperature is beneath 12 levels Celsius, and wind speeds above 85 kilometers per hour can even harm the crop. It’s important for sturdy plant progress throughout monsoons to obtain a median rainfall of 650 to 750 mm per thirty days. There are banana crops that may be grown from sea degree as much as 2000 meters above imply sea degree.

Number of Nendran banana suckers

  • Select ‘Sword Suckers’ with broad corms and slender sword-like leaves from disease-free mom crops.
  • Nendran, Rasthali, Ney Poovan, and Poovan Banana varieties require suckers to be 3-5 months previous, uniform and weighing 1-1.5 kg.
  • The suckers ought to be barely greater than 1.5-2.0 kg for long-duration varieties like Karpuravalli and Crimson Banana.
  • For ‘Tissue Tradition’ plantings, the secondary hardened plant ought to be round 30 cm tall, have a 5 cm circumference, and have 5 absolutely opened wholesome leaves.

Choice and pre-treatment of suckers 

Trim the roots and decayed parts of the corm, chopping the pseudostem 20 cm away from the corm, and grading the suckers. Contaminated parts of the corm could also be pared and dipped in 0.1% Emisan answer (1 g in 1 lit of water) for five minutes. Carbofuran 3 G granules are used for a preliminary per sucker in 40 grams. Subsequent, the corm ought to be dipped in a slurry answer consisting of 4 components clay plus 5 components water and sprinkled with carbofuran to regulate nematodes.

The corm can be dipped in 0.75% Monocrotophos, dried within the shade for at the very least 24 hours, and planted. Sunhemp ought to be sown 45 days after germination and integrated a couple of month later. Nematode buildup is lowered by this operation. The banana crops ought to have 5 – 6 leaves when tissue-cultured. For every plant, apply 25 grams of Pseudomonas fluorescence.

Land preparation

Rising inexperienced manuring crops like daincha, cowpea, and so forth., is advisable earlier than planting a banana. Plowing and leveling the land could be carried out 4-6 instances. Earlier than the final harrowing, the basal dose of FYM (about 50 tonnes/ha.) is added and totally combined into the soil. A blade harrow or laser leveler is then used to degree the sector. Most often, a pit dimension of 45cm x 45cm x 45cm is required.

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Drones in Banana Farming
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A combination of topsoil, 10% FYM (properly decomposed), 250 grams of Neem cake, and 20 grams of carbofuran might be added to the pits for refilling. Earlier than planting, nematodes and fumigants are added to pits the place nematodes are prevalent. When ready pits are uncovered to photo voltaic radiation, they’re killed by dangerous bugs, successfully stopping soil-borne ailments and aiding in aeration.

Planting in furrows is an alternative choice to planting in pits. Varied strategies, spacings, and depths could be chosen in accordance with the soil strata. For instance, the sector could also be plowed length-wise and breadth-wise on the required spacing, and pits of dimension 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.6m are dug sufficiently forward at factors that might be planted between the plow furrows.

Planting Nendran banana crop

Planting could be carried out between Could and June or between September and October. In small pits taken within the middle, a sucker is planted upright with a pseudostem 5 cm above soil degree. It is very important press the soil across the sucker to make sure no hole air areas. Crops from tissue tradition are planted in pits at floor degree. Crops ought to be planted with out damaging the roots by eradicating the poly cowl. After planting, apply gentle irrigation. The primary few days after planting, you must present partial shade.

System of planting Planting distance Plant inhabitants per acre
nendran 1.8 x 1.8 1200

Drip water requirement at completely different progress phases of banana

The entire water requirement of banana crops is about 900-1200 mm for his or her complete life cycle, and this may be met via pure precipitation (rainfall) and supplementary irrigation. Due to this fact, sustaining optimum moisture in any respect progress phases is vital. A superb drainage facility to empty extra water from the foundation zone is equally necessary to advertise higher progress and productiveness.

Typically, irrigation of the banana plantations each 3- 4 days throughout scorching durations and at 7-8 days intervals throughout cool climate is advisable. In banana plantations, completely different irrigation methods are practiced, and every system has deserves and demerits. They’re

  • Flood or Furrow irrigation
  • Trench irrigation
  • Drip Irrigation and Fertigation
Crop progress
Amount of water
(liter per plant)
After planting 1-4 Flood irrigation
Juvenile part 5-9 8-10
Essential progress stage 10-19 12
Flower bud differentiation stage 20-32 16-20
Taking pictures stage 33-37 20 and above
Bunch growth stage 38-50 20 and above

Fertilizers required for banana crop

When it comes to feeding capability, bananas are heavy feeders. One banana plant requires 10 to twenty kilograms of Farm Yard Manure, 200 to 250 grams of Nitrogen, 60 to 70 grams of Phosphorus, and 300 grams of Potassium. For a metric ton yield of bananas, 7 to eight kilograms of Nitrogen, 0.7 to 1.5 kilograms of Phosphorus, and 17 to twenty kilograms of Potassium are required. Nitrogen could be utilized in 3 break up doses of 100 grams. Following planting, you’ll be able to apply it 30 days, 60 days, and 120 days later. Throughout planting, apply 100 grams of Potassium and 40 grams of Phosphorus.

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It is usually potential to extend the yield and cut back nutrient loss from the soil by utilizing fertigation. Drip irrigation can be utilized to use water-soluble fertilizers in fertigation. A rise in yield of 25 to 30% could be achieved utilizing fertigation. Moreover, it reduces labor prices and the consumption of time. You’ll be able to apply 0.5% ZnSO4, 0.2% CuSO4, 0.2% FeSO4, and 0.1% H3BO3. As a foliar spray, you’ll be able to apply them 3, 5, and seven months after planting. In consequence, yields are additionally improved.

Dietary deficiency in banana crop

  • Nitrogen: Leaves of all ages turn into pale inexperienced. Mid ribs, petioles, and leaf sheaths flip reddish pink and rosette in look. Plantations with poor root progress exhibit such signs. Bunch weight and fruit high quality are affected.
  • Management: The applying of Urea (300 grams per plant) adopted by irrigation is advisable.
  • Phosphorus: Crops present stunted progress with poor root growth. Outdated leaves present marginal tooth chlorosis, curling of leaves, breaking of petioles, and bluish-green coloration of youthful leaves.
  • Management: The applying of DAP (50 grams per plant) adopted by irrigation is advisable.
  • Potassium: The deficiency signs embrace the orange-yellow coloration of previous leaves, scorching alongside the margins, discount in complete leaf space, curving of midribs, and so forth. Choking of leaves delay flower initiation resulting in a discount in yield and high quality.
  • Management: Spraying Potassium Sulphate (1%) answer on the leaves is advisable.
  • Calcium: The deficiency signs embrace deformation or absence of leaf lamina (spike leaf), marginal leaf necrosis, and thickening of veins.
  • Management: The software of lime (50 grams per plant) adopted by irrigation is advisable.
  • Magnesium: Yellow discoloration is noticed within the mid-blade and midrib parts; nonetheless, the margins of the leaf stay inexperienced. Purple mottling of the petioles, marginal necrosis and separation of leaf sheaths from the pseudostem can also be seen.
  • Management: The applying of Magnesium Sulphate (25 grams per plant) adopted by irrigation is advisable.
  • Sulfur: The deficiency signs embrace younger leaves yellow or white look, necrotic patches on the leaf margins, thickening of veins, stunted progress, and small or choked bunches.
  • Management: The applying of advanced fertilizer (20:20:0:15) at 20 grams per plant, adopted by irrigation, is advisable.

Pruning and bunch protecting

Crops develop healthily when lifeless and decayed leaves are pruned infrequently. For optimum bunch growth, go away 6 to eight wholesome leaves on the plant. Nevertheless, proceed to take away the unhealthy leaves. Gunny luggage or perforated polythene luggage can be utilized to cowl the bunches. A 15 to twenty% enhance in yield could be achieved by utilizing it. A bunch ought to be thinned by eradicating 1 or 2 small backside arms. For wholesome progress, hold 7 to eight arms. In consequence, bunches will develop uniformly.

Weed management in Nendran banana cultivation

Through the first 4 months, weeding ought to be carried out often. After that, spading is commonly used; it takes 4 spadings a 12 months to successfully management weeds. Manufacturing could be elevated via built-in weed administration, together with cowl crops, even handed use of herbicides, intercropping, and hand weeding the place essential. In banana fields, Diuron (1-kilo a.i./ha) and Glyphosate (2 kilos a.i./ha) are utilized pre-emergence to regulate grass and broadleaved weeds, respectively. The expansion of weeds could be suppressed by double-cropping cowpea.

Main pests in banana

Bushy caterpillar
Signs of harm
  • Caterpillar is scraping the chlorophyll content material and windowing in unfurled leaves.
  • Later the scrapped patches of the leaves appear like skinny papery
  • Absolutely grown larvae devour the complete foliage, flowers, and rising factors
Management administration
  • Egg plenty and caterpillars ought to be collected and destroyed
  • Kill the larvae congregating with a burning torch
  • Adults could be attracted and killed by utilizing gentle traps
  • Apply chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC at a charge of 2ml per liter

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Nendran Banana Farming
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Tingid or Lacewing bug
Signs of harm
  • Grubs bore into the rhizome and trigger the dying of the plant
  • Presence of dark-colored tunnels within the rhizomes.
  • Dying of unopened pipe, withering of outer leaves.
  • Feeding is mostly confined to the curve of the fruit adjoining to the bunch stalk and between the fingers. Harm ceases after the hand lifts. Mature larvae could be discovered beneath the bracts enclosing the male flower or ‘bell.’
Management administration
  • Broken leaves, flowers, and fruits, in addition to their life phases, be collected and destroyed as quickly as potential. Use a yellow sticky lure at 6 per acre.
  • Spraying dimethoate 30 EC 300 ml per acre
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/lit
  • Spray carbendazim 3g/liter of water Software of press mud at 5 kg per tree reduces the wilt incidence
Signs of harm
  • Larvae feed by scraping leaves off the ventral floor of the larva
  • Through the evening, feed voraciously on the foliage.
Management administration
  • Use gentle lure 2 per acre
  • Spray azinphos-methyl or chlorpyrifos
  • In extreme infestation apply Bacillus thuringenesis
  • Foliar spray with avalanche 1 ml in 100 ml of water
  • Discipline launch of egg parasitoids resembling Telenomus Spodoptera and Telenomus remus
  • Discipline launch of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi
Fruit rust thrips
Signs of harm
  • Discoloration of the fingers that’s rusty and reddish
  • The colonies congregate between touching or adjoining fruits to feed and oviposit, inflicting water-soaked smoky areas.
  • The leaves are yellowing, and the fruit is rising rusty
  • Sizzling water therapy earlier than planting.
  • Bunch covers (which cowl the complete size of the bunch) safety was utilized very early.
  • Common checking of fruit beneath the bunch covers is important to make sure that harm
  • Bunches, pseudostem, and suckers ought to be sprayed with chlorpyrifos
  • Soil software fipronil and bifenthrin
  • Discipline launch of coccinellid predators like lacewings, ladybird beetles

Main ailments in Banana

Cigar Finish Tip Rot
Harm signs
  • Black necrosis can unfold from immature fingers to the perianth.
  • Within the case of banana fingers, the rotted half is dry, sticky, and tends to stick to fruit (much like the ash of a cigar).
Management administration
  • The illness is successfully managed by eradicating the pistil and perianth 8-10 days after bunch formation and spraying the bunch with Dithane M -45 (0.1%) or Topsin M (0.1%).
Pseudostem Coronary heart Rot 
Harm signs
  • The inside leaves of the crown first flip yellow, then brown, and in the end die in extreme circumstances.
  • Newly planted suckers rot and emit a foul odor when they’re affected.
  • Extra extreme circumstances end result within the dying of all of the leaves and the complete plant.
Management administration
  • Adopting subject sanitation, good drainage, and correct spacing reduces the incidence of the illness.
  • To forestall the illness’s unfold, spraying Captan or Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z- 78 is efficient.
Harm signs
  • The illness assaults banana crops in any respect phases of progress.
  • The illness will end in untimely ripening and fading fruits lined with pink spore plenty.
  • The illness assaults banana heads’ flowers, pores and skin, and distal ends. The signs seem as massive brown patches lined with a crimson progress of the fungus.
  • The diseased fruit turns black, and the fruit fades.

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Nendran Banana
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Management administration
  • Spraying of Chlorothanlonil (0.2%) and Bavistin (1 %) 4 instances at 15 days intervals is advisable.
  • Minimizing bruising and correct sanitation of dealing with is important in minimizing the illness in chilly storage.


You can begin harvesting Bananas on the physiological maturity stage. It is going to guarantee the higher post-harvest high quality of the fruit. You’ll be able to harvest with the assistance of a pointy sickle. First, minimize 30 centimeters above the primary hand. Typically, after opening the primary hand, it takes 100 to 110 for the bunch to be prepared for harvesting.


This Nendran banana comes from Kerala, the place it’s a staple fruit. Their pale yellow and silky flesh give them a particular coloration and texture in comparison with different varieties resulting from their cultivation. Along with Potassium, vitamin C, and vitamin B6, they’re additionally excessive in fiber. Chips and crisps are comprised of Nendran bananas.