2021 END Wildlife Trafficking Report

Report back to Congress on the
Eradicate, Neutralize, and Disrupt Wildlife Trafficking Act of 2016
P.L. 114-231, Sec. 201

The Eradicate, Neutralize, and Disrupt (END) Wildlife Trafficking Act (P.L. 114-231; 16 U.S.C. §§ 7601-7644) (the Act) directs the Secretary of State, in session with the Secretary of the Inside and the Secretary of Commerce, to undergo Congress a report that lists Focus Nations and Nations of Concern, as outlined within the Act. 

Wildlife trafficking stays a critical transnational crime that threatens safety, financial prosperity, the rule of regulation, long-standing conservation efforts, and human well being. E.O. 13773 of February 9, 2017, referred to as for a complete and decisive method to dismantle organized crime syndicates and particularly acknowledged the connection between wildlife trafficking and transnational felony organizations. 

The Activity Drive on Wildlife Trafficking (Activity Drive), co-chaired by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Inside, and the Lawyer Basic, brings collectively 17 federal departments and businesses to implement the Nationwide Technique for Combating Wildlife Trafficking (the “Nationwide Technique”). The USG’s three-pronged method to combating wildlife trafficking – strengthening regulation enforcement, lowering demand, and constructing worldwide cooperation – deprives criminals of a key supply of financing, lowering the felony risk posed to U.S. residents. 

The Activity Drive’s work to fight wildlife trafficking is making a distinction on the bottom at dwelling and worldwide. Activity Drive efforts and actions are higher coordinated throughout the USG: efficiencies are recognized and leveraged, redundancies eradicated, and sources used extra strategically; worldwide outreach continues to develop; and improved intelligence has recognized new areas of labor and alternatives for U.S. engagement. Working in partnership with the non-public sector, native communities, and NGOs, america has led the way in which globally, securing agreements and commitments from governments and stakeholders to take pressing motion in any respect ranges. Highlights of Activity Drive efforts are included within the separate strategic assessment, as referred to as for in Sec. 301(d) of the Act.

To enhance accountability and reporting on technique implementation, the Activity Drive developed a number of indicators for monitoring USG-supported actions to handle wildlife trafficking in Focus Nations. These indicators are designed to measure inputs, outputs, or outcomes of regulation enforcement capability constructing and cooperation efforts, coverage reform, and demand discount actions tailor-made to every nation. Additionally they measure dimensions of how critically wildlife crime is perceived or addressed in every nation. U.S. missions in all 28 Focus Nations reported indicator information in 2020. Virtually each submit reported supporting host nation wildlife regulation enforcement efforts with coaching or different sources in 2020. Twenty-five of 28 posts reported seizures of belongings, proceeds, and unlawful wildlife or wildlife merchandise by regulation enforcement authorities. Twenty-two of 28 posts reported information on arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of wildlife traffickers. The Activity Drive additionally obtained information on demand discount indicators for 14 of the 28 Focus Nations. In complete, USG demand discount efforts for unlawful wildlife merchandise reached an estimated 226 million folks in 17 Focus Nations. 

Focus Nations[1] 

Methodology for Figuring out Focus Nations 

State labored intently with the opposite businesses of the Activity Drive to make use of each qualitative and quantitative data to establish Focus Nations and Nations of Concern, as outlined in Part 2 of the Act, for the 2017 END Act Report. Technical consultants and scientists from Activity Drive businesses established a course of to investigate wildlife trafficking data and gathered a set of related and accessible information. This evaluation included analysis of knowledge drawn from public reporting by USG businesses, worldwide entities such because the Conference on Worldwide Commerce in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the Worldwide Union for the Conservation of Nature, and the UN Workplace of Medicine and Crime, in addition to NGOs such because the Middle for Superior Protection Research, TRAFFIC, the Environmental Investigation Company, and Transparency Worldwide. Info from the required nationwide assessments strengthened and augmented our earlier findings. 

Activity Drive businesses, together with these represented at U.S. missions abroad, reviewed the preliminary evaluation and supplied further data that was typically solely accessible regionally. These country-specific analyses helped to spherical out the worldwide information, together with by offering data on further species corresponding to felines, primates, and marine species. Businesses additionally thought of the trajectory of wildlife populations and the impacts of trafficking, authorities, and personal sector efforts to stop unlawful commerce, and the presence of authorized or poorly regulated home markets for species threatened by wildlife trafficking. 

The Activity Drive additional evaluated whether or not governments had not too long ago taken steps to enhance laws, rules, and/or enforcement and different tendencies such that the nation is rising its efforts to fight the unlawful commerce in wildlife. Subsequent to the preliminary 26 Focus Nations recognized within the 2017 and 2018 studies, the 2019 report listed an extra two Focus Nations. No Focus Nations have been added or eliminated in 2020 or 2021. 

2021 Focus Nations 

State, in session with the Departments of the Inside and Commerce, and with USAID, agreed that every one 28 of the international locations and jurisdictions listed as Focus Nations within the 2020 END Act Report ought to stay listed. Every nation beforehand listed continues to be a “main supply of wildlife trafficking merchandise or their derivatives, a serious transit level of wildlife trafficking merchandise or their derivatives, or a serious shopper of wildlife trafficking merchandise,” and designation seems to have contributed to elevated consideration to combating wildlife trafficking in some Focus Nations. 

This dedication is predicated on evaluation of the statutory standards within the Act and doesn’t replicate a constructive or unfavorable judgment of the listed international locations or point out that these international locations usually are not working diligently to fight wildlife trafficking. Certainly, america has longstanding partnerships with many of those international locations with respect to combating wildlife trafficking and acknowledges the robust political will that already exists in lots of of those international locations to deal with this drawback. State and different Activity Drive businesses stay up for persevering with shut and constructive relationships with these international locations as we work collaboratively to fight wildlife trafficking. No new focus international locations have been added. 

In step with Part 301 of the Act, U.S. missions in every Focus Nation developed a strategic plan primarily based on the U.S. mission’s evaluation of wildlife trafficking inside that nation. U.S. businesses used the strategic plans to information and coordinate USG approaches and responses to the wants and gaps recognized within the evaluation. The Activity Drive co-chairs, together with USAID, developed and distributed templates for each the assessments and strategic plans. All Activity Drive businesses, each at submit and in Washington, have been invited to contribute to their improvement. The Activity Drive reviewed the assessments and strategic plans for completeness and consistency, recognizing variability primarily based on location, sources inside the U.S. mission, and former engagement within the concern. 

U.S. missions in all Focus Nations have accomplished their assessments and strategic plans. Collectively these paperwork present an outline of the problems associated to wildlife trafficking in that nation, establish key areas for strategic intervention by the USG, and both set up a brand new platform or assist present constructions inside the mission to information a coordinated, “complete of USG” method to interventions. 

2021 Focus Nation Record (in alphabetical order) 

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Hong Kong Particular Administrative Area
Folks’s Republic of China
Republic of the Congo
South Africa
United Arab Emirates

Nations of Concern 

2021 Nations of Concern 

To establish Nations of Concern among the many 28 Focus Nations as directed by Part 201(b) of the Act, State, in session with the Departments of the Inside and Commerce and with USAID, reviewed publicly accessible data in addition to labeled materials that indicated that governments actively engaged in or knowingly profited from the trafficking of endangered or threatened species. In 2020, no Nations of Concern have been faraway from the record, and Cambodia, Cameroon, and Nigeria have been added. There have been no adjustments to this record in 2021. This designation doesn’t point out that every one elements of the federal government are or have been concerned in wildlife trafficking, however that there are critical issues that both high-level or systemic authorities involvement has occurred. The Activity Drive will, amongst different issues, make sure that USG businesses coordinate efforts amongst U.S. federal businesses and non-federal companions to implement the U.S. mission strategic plans developed in accordance with part 301 of the Act, with a view to supporting these international locations and their governments to scale back commerce in and shopper demand for illegally traded wildlife and wildlife merchandise. 

2021 Nations of Concern Record (in alphabetical order) 

Democratic Republic of the Congo

[1] Notice that this record contains each international locations and jurisdictions 

For extra data on U.S. Authorities efforts in combating wildlife trafficking, please see:

2021 END Wildlife Trafficking Strategic Evaluate

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